Commercial Timbers: Descriptions, Illustrations, Identification, and Information Retrieval

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H. G. Richter and M. J. Dallwitz

Contents

Introduction

Interactive key, including interactive information retrieval

Interactive key, character list, illustrations, full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting specified attributes, summaries of attributes within groups of taxa, geographical distribution, acknowledgements, references, contacts.

Character list • Implicit attributes

Acknowledgements

General references • IAWA references

Contacts and disclaimer • Citation

Descriptions

These descriptions were generated from a DELTA database (Dallwitz 1980; Dallwitz, Paine, and Zurcher 1993). The bold parts are diagnostic descriptions, generated with the aid of Intkey (Dallwitz et al. 1993). They distinguish most taxa in at least two respects from the other taxa.

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X

A
• 
Acacia mangium Willd. (Akasia, mangium) • Acer spp. (Ahorn, maple) • Aesculus spp. (Rosskastanie, horse chestnut) • Afzelia spp. (Afzelia, doussié) • Aglaia spp. (Bekak, pasak, tasua) • Albizia procera Benth. (White siris, kokko) • Alchornea triplinervia (Spreng.) Muell. Arg. (Tapiá) • Alexa grandiflora Ducke, Alexa spp. (Melancieira) • Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn., Alnus spp. (Erle, alder) • Alstonia spp. - section Alstonia (Pulai) • Altingia excelsa Noroña (Rasamala) • Amburana cearensis (Fr. Allem.) A.C. Smith (Cerejeira) • Amphimas ferrugineus Pierre, A. pterocarpoides Harms (Lati) • Anacardium excelsum (Bert. & Barb.) Skeels (Espavel) • Anacardium spp. (Cashew, cajú) • Aningeria spp. (Aningré) • Anisoptera spp. (Mersawa) • Anopyxis klaineana (Pierre) Engl. (Bodioa) • Antiaris africana Engl., A. toxicaria Lesch., A. welwitschii Engl. (Ako) • Apuleia leiocarpa (Vog.) Macbride (Grapia, yvyra pere) • Arbutus spp. (Madroño) • Artocarpus spp. (Terap) • Artocarpus spp. (Keledang) • Aspidosperma polyneuron Muell. Arg. (Peroba rosa) • Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco Schlecht. (Quebracho blanco) • Aspidostemon spp. (Longotra) • Astronium spp. (Gonçalo alves, muiracoatiara, urunday) • Astronium urundeuva (Fr. Allem.) Engl. (Urunde'y mi) • Aucoumea klaineana Pierre (Okoumé) • Autranella congolensis (de Wild.) A. Chev. (Mukulungu) • Avicennia officinalis L. (api-api) • Azadirachta spp. (Neem)

B
• 
Bagassa guianensis Aubl., B. tiliaefolia R. Ben. (Tatajuba) • Baikiaea plurijuga Harms (Mukusi) • Baillonella toxisperma Pierre (Moabi) • Balfourodendron riedelianum (Engl.) Engl. (Guatambú) • Bastardiopsis densiflora (Hook. & Arn.) Hassler (Loro blanco) • Beilschmiedia spp. Tropical Asia (Medang) • Berlinia spp. (Ebiara) • Bertholletia excelsa Humb. & Bonpl. (Castanheira) • Betula spp. (Birke, birch) • Bischofia javanica Blume (Gadog) • Bixa arborea Huber (Urucú da mata) • Bombacopsis quinata (Jacq.) Dugand (Pochote) • Bowdichia spp., Diplotropis spp. u.a. (Sucupira) • Brachylaena hutchinsii Hutch. (Muhuhu) • Brachystegia spp. (Naga, okwen) • Breviea leptosperma Heine (Aningré) • Brosimum alicastrum Swartz (Capomo, ramón, ojoche, muiratinga) • Brosimum guianense (Aubl.) Huber (Schlangenholz, snakewood) • Brosimum rubescens Taub. (Satiné) • Brosimum utile (H.B.K.) Pittier (Sandé, palo de vaca) • Brosimum spp. (Amapá) • Bulnesia arborea Engl. (Vera), B. sarmientoi Lorentz ex Griseb. (Palo santo) • Buxus sempervirens L., B. macowani Oliv. (Buchsbaum, box, boj)

C
• 
Cabralea canjerana Sald. (Cancharana) • Caesalpinia paraguariensis (D. Parodi) Burk. (Guajakan) • Calophyllum brasiliense Camb. (Jacareúba, palo de maría) • Calophyllum spp. (Bintangor) • Calycophyllum multiflorum Griseb. (Castelo) • Campnosperma spp. (Terentang-Asia, Orey-Panama) • Canarium schweinfurthii Engl. (Aielé) • Canarium spp. - SE Asia (Kedongdong) • Cantleya corniculata (Becc.) Howard (Dedaru) • Carapa guianensis Aubl. (Andiroba) • Cariniana spp. (Jequitibá) • Carpinus betulus L. (Hainbuche, hornbeam) • Carya spp. (Hickory) • Casearia gossypiosperma Briquet (Mbavy) • Casearia praecox Griseb. (Zapatero) • Castanea spp. (Kastanie, chestnut) • Castanopsis spp., SE Asia (Berangan) • Castanospermum australe A.Cunn. (Black bean) • Catalpa bignonioides Walt., Catalpa spp. (Catalpa, bean tree) • Cavanillesia platanifolia H.B.K. (Cuipo) • Cedrela odorata L., C. fissilis Vell. (Cedro) • Cedrelinga catenaeformis Ducke (Cedrorana, tornillo) • Ceiba pentandra Gaertn. (Ceiba, fromager) • Celtis occidentalis L., Celtis spp. (Hackberry, sugarberry) • Cercidiphyllum japonicum (Sieb. & Zucc.) (Katsura) • Ceriops tagal (Perr.) C.B. Robinson (Bakau) • Chlorocardium rodiei (R.Schomb.) R.R.W. (Greenheart) • Chorisia speciosa St. Hil.(Samu'u) • Chrysophyllum gonocarpum (Martius & Eichler)Engler (Aguai) • Chukrasia tabularis A.H.L. Jussieu (Surian batu) • Cinnamomum spp. Asia and Pacific (Medang, cinnamon) • Clarisia racemosa Ruiz & Pavon (Guariuba) • Copaifera langsdorfii Desf. (Kupa'y) • Copaifera officinalis L. (Copaiba) • Cordia alliodora (Ruiz & Pavon) Oken (Canalete, laurel blanco, louro) • Cordia glabrata (Mart.) A.DC. (Louro preto, piquana negra) • Cordia goeldiana Huber, C. sagotii I.M. Johnston (Freijó) • Cordia trichotoma (Vell.) Arrab. ex Steudel (Peterevy) • Corylus avellana L. (Haselnuss, hazel) • Cotylelobium spp. (Resak) • Couratari spp. (Tauarí) • Couroupita spp. (Cannon-ball tree, castanha de macaco) • Crataegus spp. (Weißdorn, hawthorn, may tree) • Cratoxylum arborescens Bl. (Geronggang) • Cryptocarya spp. Tropical Asia (Medang) • Ctenolophon parvifolius Oliv. (Mertas) • Cylicodiscus gabunensis (Taub.) Harms (Okan) • Cynometra spp. (Kekatong)

D
• 
Dactylocladus stenostachys Oliv. (Jongkong) • Dalbergia decipularis Matt. & Rizz. (Bahia Rosenholz, tulipwood) • Dalbergia latifolia Roxb. (Indian rosewood, sonokeling) • Dalbergia madagascariensis Vatke (Madagascar rosewood) • Dalbergia maritima Vig. (Madagascar bois de rose) • Dalbergia melanoxylon Guill. & Perr. (Grenadill, African blackwood) • Dalbergia nigra Fr. All. (Rio Palisander, Brazilian rosewood) • Dalbergia retusa Hemsl. (Cocobolo) • Dalbergia spruceana Benth. (Amazonas Palisander, Amazonas rosewood) • Daniellia spp. (Faro) • Dendropanax spp. (Maria-mole, amba'y ra) • Detarium senegalense Gmel., D. macrocarpum Harms (Boiré) • Dialium platysepalum Baker, Dialium spp. (Keranji) • Dicorynia guianensis Amsh., D. paraensis Benth. (Angélique, basralocus) • Didelotia spp. (Gombé) • Dillenia spp. (Simpoh, simpur) • Dinizia excelsa Ducke (Angelim vermelho) • Diospyros spp. (Schwarze Ebenhölzer, black ebony - Afrika, Madagaskar) • Diospyros virginiana L. (Helles Ebenholz, persimmon) • Diospyros spp. (Gestreifte Ebenhölzer, streaked ebony) • Diospyros spp. (Schwarze Ebenhölzer, black ebony - Asien) • Dipterocarpus spp. (Keruing) • Dipteryx odorata (Aubl.) Willd., D. alata Vog. (Cumarú) • Distemonanthus benthamianus Baillon (Movingui) • Dracontomelon dao (Blanco) Merr. & Rolfe (Dao, paldao) • Dryobalanops spp. (Kapur) • Duabanga moluccana Blume (Duabanga) • Durio spp. (Durian, red burong) • Dyera costulata (Miq.) Hook.f. (Jelutong)

E
• 
Ecclinusa spp. (Ucuquirana) • Elmerrillia spp. (Chempaka, wau beech) • Endospermum spp. (Sesendok) • Entandrophragma angolense (Welw.) C. DC. (Tiama) • Entandrophragma candollei Harms (Kosipo) • Entandrophragma cylindricum (Sprague) Sprague (Sapeli) • Entandrophragma utile (Dawe & Sprague) Sprague (Sipo, utile) • Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell.) Morong & Britton (Timbó) • Eperua spp. (Wallaba) • Eribroma oblonga (Mast.) Bodard (Eyong) • Erisma spp. (Cambará) • Erythrophleum ivorense A. Chev, E. guineense G. Don (Tali) • Erythrina falcata Benth. (Ceibo) • Erythrina spp. (coral tree) • Eucalyptus deglupta Blume (Kamerere) • Eucalyptus diversicolor F. v. Muell. (Karri) • Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (Blue gum, "globulus") • Eusideroxylon zwageri Teijsm. & Binnend. (Billian, ulin)

F
• 
Fagara chiloperone Engl. ex Chod. & Hassl. (Tembetary hu) • Fagara riedeliana (Engl.)Engl. (Tembetary sa'y ju) • Fagraea fragrans Roxb., Fagraea spp. (Tembesu, tembusu) • Fagus sylvatica L. (Buche, beech, haya) • Ficus spp. (Caxinguba, bibosi) • Flindersia spp. (Queensland maple, silkwood) • Fraxinus spp. (Esche, ash, fresno)

G
• 
Gambeya beguei (Aubr. & Pell.) Aubr. & Pell., Donella spp. (Aningré blanc) • Gambeya spp. (Longhi) • Genipa americana L. (Jagua, genipapo) • Gilbertiodendron spp. (Limbali) • Gluta spp. (Rengas) • Glycydendron amazonicum Ducke (Glícia) • Gmelina arborea Roxb. (Gmelina, yemane) • Gonioma kamassi E. Meyer (Kamassi, Knysna box) • Gonystylus spp. (Ramin) • Gossweilerodendron balsamiferum (Verm.) Harms (Agba, tola) • Gossweilerodendron joveri Normand ex Aubrev. (Oduma) • Goupia glabra Aublet (Cupiuba) • Grevillea robusta A.Cunn. (Silky oak) • Guaiacum spp. (Pockholz, lignum vitae) • Guarea spp. (Bossé) • Guazuma ulmifolia Lamk. (Guácimo) • Guibourtia arnoldiana (de Wild. & Th. Dur.) J. Léonard (Mutenye) • Guibourtia coleosperma (Benth.) J. Léonard (Mushibi) • Guibourtia conjugata (Bolle) J. Léonard (Black chacate) • Guibourtia ehie (A. Chev.) J. Léonard (Amazakoue, ovengkol) • Guibourtia spp. (Bubinga) • Guilandina echinata (Lam.) Spreng. (Páu brasil, Fernambuc, brazilwood) • Gymnanthes lucida Sw. (Yaití)

H
• 
Heliocarpus americanus L. (Amores secos) • Heritiera utilis (Sprague) Sprague (Niangón) • Heritiera spp. (Mengkulang) • Hevea brasiliensis (Willd.) Muell.Arg (Hevarú, rubberwood) • Hieronyma alchorneoides Fr. Allem. (Pilón) • Homalium spp. (Malas) • Hopea spp. (Giam) • Hopea spp. (Merawan) • Horsfieldia spp. (Penarahan) • Hura crepitans L., H. polyandra Baill. (Possum wood, habillo) • Hymenaea courbaril L., Hymenaea spp. (Jatobá, courbaril) • Hymenolobium spp. (Angelim pedra)

I
• 
Ilex spp. (Holly, congonha) • Inga uruguensis Hook & Arn. (Ingá) • Intsia spp. (Merbau) • Irvingia gabonensis Baill., Irvingia spp. (Dika) • Irvingia malayana Oliv. (Pau kijang)

J
• 
Jacaranda copaia (Aubl.) D.Don, Jacaranda spp. (Copaia) • Juglans australis Griseb., Juglans spp. (Nogal, tropical walnut) • Juglans regia L., Juglans nigra L. (Nussbaum, walnut)

K
• 
Kalopanax pictus (Thunb.) Nakai (Sen) • Khaya spp. (Khaya, African mahogany) • Kokoona littoralis Laws. (Mata ulat) • Koompassia excelsa (Becc.) Taub. (Tualang) • Koompassia malaccensis Maing. (Kempas)

L
• 
Lagerstroemia spp. (Tabek) • Leucaena spp. (Guaje, ipil-ipil) • Licania spp. - Tropical America (grigri, caraipé) • Licaria spp. (Louro, canela) • Licaria canella (Meissn.) Kosterm. (Kaneelhart) • Licaria capitata (Laurel, canela) • Licaria subbullata Kosterm. (Louro, silverballi) • Liquidambar styraciflua L. (Red gum, sweet gum) • Liriodendron tulipifera L. (Whitewood) • Lithocarpus spp. (Mempening, Chinese oak) • Lonchocarpus leucanthus Burk. (Yvyra ita) • Lophira alata Banks ex Gaertn.f. (Azobé, bongossi) • Lophopetalum spp. (Perupok) • Lovoa trichilioides Harms (Dibétou) • Luehea divaricata Mart. (Ka'a oveti)

M
• 
Machaerium scleroxylon Tul. (Santos Palisander, morado) • Maclura tinctoria (L.) D. Don ex Steud. (Fustic, moral) • Madhuca spp. (Bitis) • Malacantha alnifolia Pierre (Aningré blanc) • Mammea africana Sabine (Oboto) • Mangifera indica L., Mangifera spp. (Machang) • Manilkara bidentata (A.DC.) A.Chev., M. huberi (Ducke) A. Chev. (Massaranduba) • Manilkara kauki (L.) Dubard, Manilkara spp. (Sawo) • Mansonia altissima (A. Chev.) A. Chev. (Mansonia, Béte) • Maquira sclerophylla (Ducke) C.C. Berg (Muiratinga) • Mastixia spp. (kundur) • Melia azedarach L. (Paraiso, persian lilac) • Mesua ferrea L. (Penaga) • Mezilaurus spp. (Itauba) • Microberlinia brazzavillensis A. Chev., M. bisulcata A. Chev. (Zebrano) • Mildbraediodendron excelsum Harms (Muyati) • Milicia excelsa (Welw.) C.C. Berg (Iroko, kambala) • Millettia laurentii De Wild. (Wengé) • Millettia stuhlmannii Taub. (Panga panga) • Mimusops elengi L. (bukal, tanjung) • Minquartia guianensis Aublet (Acariquara, manwood) • Mitragyna ciliata Aubrév. & Pellegr., M. stipulosa O. Kuntze (Abura) • Mouriri spp. (Pau ripa) • Myrcianthes pungens (Berg.) Legrand (Guaviju) • Myristica spp. (Penarahan) • Myrocarpus frondosus Fr. Allem.(Incienso) • Myroxylon spp. (Bálsamo)

N
• 
Nauclea diderrichii Merrill (Bilinga) • Nectandra lanceolata Nees (Laurel moroti) • Nectandra megapotamica (Sprengel) Mez (Laurel negro) • Neobalanocarpus heimii (King) Ashton (Chengal) • Neolamarckia cadamba (Roxb.) Bosser (Kadam) • Nesogordonia papaverifera (A. Chev.) R. Capuron (Kotibé) • Nothaphoebe spp. (Medang) • Nothofagus dombeyi (Mirb.) Oerst., Nothofagus spp. (Coigue, rauli, lenga) • Nothofagus menziesii Oerst. (Silver beech) • Nyssa spp. (Tupelo)

O
• 
Ochanostachys amentacea Masters (Petaling) • Ochroma lagopus Sw. (Balsa) • Ocotea puberula (Rich.) Nees (Laurel guaika) • Ocotea rubra Mez (Louro vermelho, wane) • Octomeles sumatrana Miq. (Binuang) • Olea europea L. (Olive) • Oxystigma spp. (Tchitola)

P
• 
Palaquium spp. (Nyatoh) • Paraserianthes falcataria (L.) Nielsen (Jeungjing) • Parashorea spp. (Urat mata, white seraya, gerutu) • Parinari spp. (AF: sougue, SA: parinari, SEA: merbatu) • Patagonula americana L.(Guajayvi) • Paulownia tomentosa (Thunb. ex Murr) Steud. (Kiri) • Payena acuminata (Blume) Pierre, Payena spp. (Nyatoh) • Peltogyne spp. (Amarant, nazareno, pau roxo) • Peltophorum vogelianum Walp. (Yvyra pyta) • Pentace spp. (Melunak) • Pera glabrata (Schott) Baill. (Pilón rosado) • Pericopsis elata (Harms) van Meeuwen (Afrormosia, kokrodua) • Peronema canescens Jack (Sungkai) • Phellodendron amurense Rupr., Phellodendron spp. (Amur cork tree) • Phyllostylon brasiliensis Capanema (Baitoa) • Piptadenia macrocarpa Benth. (Kurupa'y kuru) • Piptadenia rigida Benth. (Kurupa'y ra) • Piptadeniastrum africanum (Hook.f.) Brenan (Dabema) • Platanus spp. (Platane, plane, sycamore) • Platymiscium pinnatum (Jacq.) Dugand (Cristobal, macacaúba) • Pometia pinnata J.R. Forster & J.G. Forster (Kasai, taun) • Populus spp. (Pappel, poplar) • Prosopis nigra (Griseb.) Hieron. (Algarrobo negro) • Prunus avium (L.) L., P. serotina Ehrh. (Kirschbaum, cherry) • Prunus sp. (Yvaro) • Pterocarpus indicus Willd. (Amboina, narra) • Pterocarpus officinalis Jacq., P. rohrii Vahl (Palo de sangre) • Pterocarpus soyauxii Taub. (Padouk) • Pterocarpus angolensis DC. (Muninga) • Pterocarpus santalinus L. (Red sanders) • Pterocymbium spp. (Amberoi) • Pterogyne nitens Tulasne (Yvyraro) • Pterospermum spp.(Bayur) • Pterygota bequaertii De Wild., P. macrocarpa K. Schum. (Koto) • Pycnanthus angolense (Welw.) Warb. (Ilomba) • Pyrus communis L. (Birnbaum, pear)

Q
• 
Qualea spp. (Cêdre gris, mandioqueira, quaruba rana) • Quercus(l) spp., SE Asia (Mempening, live oak) • Quercus(r) spp. (Roteiche, red oak) • Quercus(w) spp. (Weißeiche, white oak)

R
• 
Rhamnus catharticus L. (Kreuzdorn, buckthorn) • Rhamnus frangula L. (Faulbaum, alder buckthorn) • Rhizophora mangle L. (Mangle) • Rhodognaphalon brevicuspe (Sprague) Roberty (Kondroti) • Ricinodendron heudelotii (Baill.) Pierre ex Pax (Erimado) • Robinia pseudoacacia L. (Robinie, black locust) • Roupala spp. (Louro faia)

S
• 
Sacoglottis spp. (Ozouga, uchi) • Salix spp. (Weide, willow) • Samanea saman Merr. (Saman, rain tree) • Santiria trimera, Santiria spp. (oliv.) Guill. (kedongdong) • Sapium spp. - Old World species (Ludai, ebusok) • Sapium spp. - New World species (Lechero) • Scaphium macropodum (Miq.) Beumée ex K. Heyne (Kembang semangkok) • Schefflera morototonii (Aubl.) Maguire, Steyerm. & Frodin (Morototó) • Schima wallichii (DC.) Korth. (Samak, puspa) • Schinopsis quebracho-colorado (Schltdl.) F.A.Barkley & T. Mey (Coronillo) • Shorea laevis Ridl. (Balau, bangkirai) • Shorea spp., subg. Anthoshorea (White meranti, melapi) • Shorea spp., subg. Richetia (Yellow meranti, meranti kuning) • Shorea spp., subg. Rubroshorea (Dark Red Meranti) • Shorea ovata Dyer ex Brandis (Meranti punai bukit) • Shorea spp., subg. Rubroshorea (Light Red Meranti) • Shorea leprosula Miq. (Meranti tembaga, tembaga) • Shorea spp., subg. Rubroshorea (Red Balau) • Shorea spp., subg. Shorea (Balau, bangkirai) • Sideroxylon obtusifolium (Roem. & Schult.) Penn. (Yvyra hu) • Simarouba amara Aubl. (Simaruba, marupá) • Sindora spp. (Sepetir) • Sorbus aucuparia L. (Vogelbeere, Eberesche, rowan tree) • Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz (Elsbeere, service berry) • Spondias mombin L. (Jobo) • Sterculia apetala (Jacq.) Karst. (Mahot blanc, cacao de monte) • Swartzia fistuloides Harms, S. madagascariensis (Taub.) Desv. (Pau rosa) • Swietenia macrophylla King (Echtes Mahagoni, true mahogany, caoba) • Swintonia spp. (Merpauh) • Symphonia globulifera L. (Manil)

T
• 
Tabebuia rosea (Bert.) DC. (Rosa morada) • Tabebuia spp. (Ipé, lapacho, pau d'arco) • Tachigali spp. (Tachi branco, t. preto) • Tapirira guianensis Aubl. (Tatapiririca) • Tectona grandis L. (Teak, jati) • Terminalia amazonia (Gmel.) Exell (Nargusta, amarillo) • Terminalia ivorensis A. Chev. (Framiré) • Terminalia superba Engl.& Diels (Limba) • Terminalia spp. Asia II (Ketapang) • Terminalia spp. Asia I (Indian laurel) • Tetraberlinia bifoliolata, T. tubmaniana (Ekaba) • Tetramerista glabra Miq. (Punah) • Tieghemella africana Pierre, T. heckelii Pierre ex A. Chev. (Makoré) • Tilia spp. (Linde, lime, basswood) • Tipuana tipu (Benth.) O. Kuntze (Tipa blanca) • Toona spp. (kalantas, surian, toon) • Triplochiton scleroxylon K. Schum. (Abachi, ayous, obeche, samba, wawa) • Trochodendron aralioides (Yama-gumura) • Turraeanthus africanus (Welw. ex DC.) Pellegr. (Avodiré)

U
• 
Ulmus spp. (Ulme, Rüster, elm) • Upuna borneensis Sym. (Upun)

V
• 
Virola spp. (Virola, bicuiba) • Vitex spp. (Leban) • Vochysia spp. (Quaruba)

W
• 
Wrightia spp. (lanete)

X
• 
Xylocarpus spp. (Miri, nyireh)


Cite this publication as: ‘Richter, H.G., and Dallwitz, M.J. 2000 onwards. Commercial timbers: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval. In English, French, German, Portuguese, and Spanish. Version: 25th June 2009. http://delta-intkey.com’.

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