Commercial Timbers


H. G. Richter and M. J. Dallwitz

Entandrophragma candollei Harms (Kosipo)

Nomenclature etc. MELIACEAE. Syn.: Entandrophragma ferrugineum A. Chev. Trade and local names: kosipo (DE, CI, FR); boubousson rouge, vroudi (CI); heavy sapele, omu (GB, NG); atom-assié, klatié (CM); lifaki (CD); mpempe (CG); assoré, ikwapobo (NG); kossipo (NL); lifuko (AO); penkwa (GH). Not protected under CITES regulations.

Tree. Geographic distribution: tropical Africa.

General. Heartwood basically brown to red. Sapwood colour distinct from heartwood colour. Density 0.55–0.58–0.65 g/cm³.

Vessels. Wood diffuse-porous. Vessels in multiples, commonly short (2–3 vessels) radial rows. Average tangential vessel diameter 160–210–270 µm; diameter of vessel lumina: large. Average number of vessels/mm² 2–5; vessels per square millimetre very few. Average vessel element length 500–600 µm. Average vessel element length medium. Perforation plates simple. Intervessel pits alternate, average diameter (vertical) 2–3 µm. Vessel-ray pits with distinct borders, similar to intervessel pits. Tyloses in vessels absent. Other deposits in heartwood vessels present (dark reddish brown).

Tracheids and fibres. Fibres of medium wall thickness. Average fibre length 1085–1860–2600 µm. Fibre pits mainly restricted to radial walls, simple to minutely bordered. Fibres septate and non-septate, or non-septate. Fibre lumina frequently containing reddish brown compounds.

Axial parenchyma. Axial parenchyma present, banded. Axial parenchyma bands marginal (or seemingly marginal) and not marginal (or seemingly marginal), bands much wider than rays, coarse, more than three cells wide. Axial parenchyma paratracheal. Paratracheal axial parenchyma vasicentric, confluent, and unilateral. Axial parenchyma as strands. Average number of cells per axial parenchyma strand 4–8(–13).

Rays. Rays 5–6 per tangential mm, multiseriate (also if only few), 3–6 cells wide. Rays composed of two or more cell types (heterocellular). Heterocellular rays with square and upright cells restricted to marginal rows, mostly 1 marginal row of upright or square cells.

Storied structures. Storied structure absent.

Secretory structures. Intercellular canals absent.

Mineral inclusions. Crystals not observed. Silica present, as grains, in rays cells and in axial parenchyma.

Illustrations. • Macro images. Entandrophragma candollei. Transverse. Radial. • Transverse section. Entandrophragma candollei. • Tangential section. Entandrophragma candollei. • Radial section. Entandrophragma candollei. (Inset: silica particles in ray cells).

The interactive key allows access to the character list, illustrations, full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting specified attributes, summaries of attributes within groups of taxa, and geographical distribution.

Cite this publication as: ‘Richter, H.G., and Dallwitz, M.J. 2000 onwards. Commercial timbers: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval. In English, French, German, Portuguese, and Spanish. Version: 25th June 2009.’.