Commercial Timbers


H. G. Richter and M. J. Dallwitz

Endospermum spp. (Sesendok)

Nomenclature etc. EUPHORBIACEAE. E. diadenum (Miq.) Airy Shaw - Syn.: E. malaccense Benn. & Muell. Arg.; E. macrophylla (Muell.Arg) Pax & Hoffm., E. medullosum L.S. Smith, E. moluccanum (Teysm. & Binn.) Kurz, E. peltatum Merr. Trade and local names: sesendok (MY); sendok-sendok (MY,ID); gubas (PH); PNG basswood, endospermum (PG); terbulan (MY-sar); bakota (IN); kauvula (FJ). Not protected under CITES regulations.

Tree. Geographic distribution: India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, or Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia, or Indomalesia.

General. Growth ring boundaries indistinct or absent. Heartwood basically yellow white or grey, without streaks. Sapwood colour similar to heartwood colour. Odour indistinct or absent. Density 0.35–0.45(–0.55) g/cm³.

Vessels. Wood diffuse-porous. Vessels arranged in no specific pattern, in multiples, commonly short (2–3 vessels) radial rows. Average tangential vessel diameter 160–220–280 µm. Average number of vessels/mm² 1–3. Perforation plates simple. Intervessel pits alternate, average diameter (vertical) 12–16 µm, not vestured. Vessel-ray pits with reduced borders or apparently simple, rounded or angular, of uniform size or type, of the same type in adjacent elements, located throughout the ray. Helical thickenings absent. Tyloses in vessels present, thinwalled. Other deposits in heartwood vessels not observed.

Tracheids and fibres. Vascular or vasicentric tracheids sporadic to absent. Fibres very thin-walled, or of medium wall thickness. Fibre pits mainly restricted to radial walls, simple to minutely bordered or distinctly bordered. Fibres non-septate.

Axial parenchyma. Axial parenchyma present, banded. Axial parenchyma bands reticulate, fine, up to three cells wide. Axial parenchyma apotracheal. Apotracheal axial parenchyma diffuse-in-aggregates. Axial parenchyma as strands. Average number of cells per axial parenchyma strand 4–7.

Rays. Rays 7–9 per tangential mm, multiseriate (also if only few), 1–2 cells wide. Rays with multiseriate portions as wide as uniseriate portions present. Aggregate rays absent. Rays of one size. Rays composed of two or more cell types (heterocellular). Heterocellular rays with square and upright cells restricted to marginal rows, mostly 2–4 marginal rows of upright or square cells or with more than 4 marginal rows of upright or square cells. Sheath cells absent. Tile cells absent. Perforated ray cells absent. Disjunctive ray parenchyma end walls indistinct or absent.

Storied structures. Storied structure absent.

Secretory structures. Oil and mucilage cells absent. Intercellular canals absent. Laticifers or tanniniferous tubes absent.

Cambial variants. Included phloem absent. Other cambial variants absent.

Mineral inclusions. Crystals present, prismatic, located in rarely ray cells or axial parenchyma cells. Crystal-containing ray cells upright and/or square or procumbent. Crystal-containing axial parenchyma cells chambered, or not chambered. Number of crystals per cell or chamber one. Crystal containing cells of normal size. Silica not observed.

Illustrations. • Macro images. Endospermum sp.. Transverse. Longitudinal. • Transverse section. Endospermum macrophyllum. • Tangential section. Endospermum macrophyllum. • Radial section. Endospermum macrophyllum.

The interactive key allows access to the character list, illustrations, full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting specified attributes, summaries of attributes within groups of taxa, and geographical distribution.

Cite this publication as: ‘Richter, H.G., and Dallwitz, M.J. 2000 onwards. Commercial timbers: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval. In English, French, German, Portuguese, and Spanish. Version: 25th June 2009.’.