Commercial Timbers

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H. G. Richter and M. J. Dallwitz

Scaphium macropodum (Miq.) Beumée ex K. Heyne (Kembang semangkok)

Nomenclature etc. STERCULIACEAE. + Scaphium borneensis, S. linearicarpum, S. longiflorum, S. longipetiolatum, S. scaphigerum. Trade and local names: kembang semangkok (MY); kapas-kapasan, merpayang (ID); shaw taung-thinbow (MM); phungtalai, samrong (TH). Not protected under CITES regulations.

Tree. Geographic distribution: Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia and Indomalesia.

General. Growth ring boundaries distinct or indistinct or absent. Growth ring boundaries, if distinct, demarcated by marginal parenchyma. Heartwood basically brown. Sapwood colour similar to heartwood colour, or distinct from heartwood colour. Density 0.52–0.76–0.8 g/cm³.

Vessels. Wood diffuse-porous. Vessels in multiples, commonly short (2–3 vessels) radial rows. Average tangential vessel diameter 190–270 µm. Average number of vessels/mm² 2–4. Perforation plates simple. Intervessel pits alternate, average diameter (vertical) 6–7 µm. Vessel-ray pits with distinct borders, similar to intervessel pits.

Tracheids and fibres. Fibres very thin-walled, or of medium wall thickness. Average fibre length 800–1400 µm. Fibre pits mainly restricted to radial walls, simple to minutely bordered.

Axial parenchyma. Axial parenchyma banded. Axial parenchyma bands marginal (or seemingly marginal), fine, up to three cells wide. Axial parenchyma paratracheal. Paratracheal axial parenchyma aliform, or confluent. Aliform parenchyma winged. Axial parenchyma as strands. Average number of cells per axial parenchyma strand 4.

Rays. Rays 5–7 per tangential mm, multiseriate (also if only few), (1–)6–17 cells wide. Rays of two distinct sizes. Height of large rays commonly over 1000 µm. Rays composed of two or more cell types (heterocellular). Heterocellular rays with square and upright cells restricted to marginal rows, mostly 1 marginal row of upright or square cells. Sheath cells present.

Storied structures. Storied structure present, some rays storied, some not, axial parenchyma storied, vessel elements storied, fibres storied. Except largest rays all elements storied.

Mineral inclusions. Crystals not observed. Silica present, as grains, in rays cells and in axial parenchyma.

Illustrations. • Transverse section. Scaphium longepetiolatum. • Tangential section. Scaphium longepetiolatum. Note storied arrangment of low uniseriate rays. • Radial section. Scaphium longepetiolatum.


The interactive key allows access to the character list, illustrations, full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting specified attributes, summaries of attributes within groups of taxa, and geographical distribution.

Cite this publication as: ‘Richter, H.G., and Dallwitz, M.J. 2000 onwards. Commercial timbers: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval. In English, French, German, Portuguese, and Spanish. Version: 25th June 2009. http://delta-intkey.com’.

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