Commercial Timbers


H. G. Richter and M. J. Dallwitz

Manilkara bidentata (A.DC.) A.Chev., M. huberi (Ducke) A. Chev. (Massaranduba)

Nomenclature etc. SAPOTACEAE. Syn.: Mimusops bidentata A.DC., Mimusops huberi Ducke, Mimusops elata Fr.Allem., Manilkara bidenta (A.DC.) Chev. ssp. surinamensis (Miq.) Pennington, Manilkara elata (Fr. Allem.) Monachino. Trade and local names: massaranduba, m. verdadeiro, m. araua, balata maparajuba (BR); purguo morado (VE); bulletrie (SR); quinilla, ansubo (PE). Not protected under CITES regulations.

Tree. Geographic distribution: Caribbean and tropical South America.

General. Heartwood basically brown to red (dark reddish brown). Sapwood colour distinct from heartwood colour. Density 0.85–0.95–1 g/cm³.

Vessels. Wood diffuse-porous. Vessels arranged in diagonal and/or radial pattern, in multiples, commonly short (2–3 vessels) radial rows and radial rows of 4 or more. Average tangential vessel diameter 82–112–150 µm. Average number of vessels/mm² 10–11. Perforation plates simple. Intervessel pits alternate, average diameter (vertical) 4–6 µm. Vessel-ray pits with distinct borders or with reduced borders or apparently simple, similar to intervessel pits or different from intervessel pits, rounded or angular or horizontal to vertical, of two distinct sizes or types in the same ray cell. Tyloses in vessels present, thinwalled or sclerotic. Other deposits in heartwood vessels present (dark brown).

Tracheids and fibres. Vascular or vasicentric tracheids commonly present. Fibres very thick-walled. Fibre pits mainly restricted to radial walls, simple to minutely bordered.

Axial parenchyma. Axial parenchyma banded. Axial parenchyma bands reticulate, fine, up to three cells wide. Axial parenchyma apotracheal. Apotracheal axial parenchyma diffuse to diffuse-in-aggregates. Axial parenchyma as strands. Average number of cells per axial parenchyma strand 7–9.

Rays. Rays 12–15 per tangential mm, multiseriate (also if only few), (1–)2 cells wide (rarely 3-seriate). Rays composed of two or more cell types (heterocellular). Heterocellular rays with procumbent, square and upright cells mixed throughout the ray.

Mineral inclusions. Crystals present, prismatic, located in axial parenchyma cells. Crystal-containing axial parenchyma cells chambered. Number of crystals per cell or chamber one. Silica not observed.

Physical and chemical tests. Froth test positive. Splinter burns to full ash. Ash bright white.

Illustrations. • Macro images. Manilkara bidentata. Transverse. Longitudinal. • Transverse section. Manilkara bidentata. • Tangential section. Manilkara bidentata. • Radial section. Manilkara bidentata.

The interactive key allows access to the character list, illustrations, full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting specified attributes, summaries of attributes within groups of taxa, and geographical distribution.

Cite this publication as: ‘Richter, H.G., and Dallwitz, M.J. 2000 onwards. Commercial timbers: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval. In English, French, German, Portuguese, and Spanish. Version: 25th June 2009.’.