Nomenclature etc. CELASTRACEAE (GOUPIACEAE). Trade and local names: cupiuba, cachaceiro, copiuva (BR); chaquiro, sapino, saino (CO); kabukalli, copi (GY); goupi (GF); capricornia (PE); koepie (SR); congrio blanco (VE). Not protected under CITES regulations.
Description based on 7 specimens. Tree. Geographic distribution: tropical South America.
General. Growth ring boundaries indistinct or absent. Heartwood basically orange brown (orange), without streaks. Sapwood colour distinct from heartwood colour. Odour distinct. Density 0.73–0.8 g/cm³.
Vessels. Wood diffuse-porous. Vessels arranged in no specific pattern, exclusively solitary. Vessel outline rounded. Two distinct vessel diameter classes absent. Average tangential vessel diameter 160–190 µm; diameter of vessel lumina: large. Average number of vessels/mm² 5–10; vessels per square millimetre few. Average vessel element length 700–1200 µm. Average vessel element length long. Perforation plates scalariform, with 5–10 bars. Intervessel pits alternate, average diameter (vertical) 3–5 µm, minute to small, not vestured. Contacts between vessels extremely rare; information about pit arrangement and size accessible via crossfield pitting. Vessel-ray pits with distinct borders, similar to intervessel pits, of uniform size or type, of the same type in adjacent elements, located throughout the ray. Helical thickenings absent. Tyloses in vessels absent. Other deposits in heartwood vessels present, light reddish-brown contents, rare.
Tracheids and fibres. Vascular or vasicentric tracheids sporadic to absent. Fibres of medium wall thickness. Fibre pits common in both radial and tangential walls, distinctly bordered. Helical thickenings absent. Fibres non-septate.
Axial parenchyma. Axial parenchyma not banded. Axial parenchyma apotracheal, or paratracheal. Apotracheal axial parenchyma diffuse. Paratracheal axial parenchyma scanty. Axial parenchyma as strands. Average number of cells per axial parenchyma strand 4–8. Unlignified parenchyma absent.
Rays. Rays 8–12 per tangential mm, multiseriate (also if only few), 2–4 cells wide, narrow (2–3 seriate) to of medium width (3–5 seriate). Rays with multiseriate portions as wide as uniseriate portions present (occasionally). Aggregate rays absent. Rays of one size. Height of large rays commonly 500 to 1000 µm. Rays composed of two or more cell types (heterocellular). Heterocellular rays with square and upright cells restricted to marginal rows, with more than 4 marginal rows of upright or square cells (commonly 5–20 marginal rows). Sheath cells absent. Tile cells absent. Perforated ray cells absent. Disjunctive ray parenchyma end walls indistinct or absent.
Storied structures. Storied structure absent.
Secretory structures. Oil and mucilage cells absent. Intercellular canals absent. Laticifers or tanniniferous tubes absent.
Cambial variants. Included phloem absent. Other cambial variants absent.
Mineral inclusions. Crystals present, prismatic, located in ray cells. Crystal-containing ray cells upright and/or square, upright and/or square ray cells not chambered. Crystals in procumbent ray cells not in radial alignment. Crystal-containing axial parenchyma cells not chambered. Number of crystals per cell or chamber one. Crystal containing cells of normal size. Cystoliths absent. Silica not observed.
Illustrations. • Transverse section. Goupia glabra. • Tangential section. Gmelina arborea. • Radial section. Gmelina arborea.
The interactive key allows access to the character list, illustrations, full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting specified attributes, summaries of attributes within groups of taxa, and geographical distribution.
Cite this publication as: ‘Richter, H.G., and Dallwitz, M.J. 2000 onwards. Commercial timbers: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval. In English, French, German, Portuguese, and Spanish. Version: 25th June 2009. http://delta-intkey.com’.