Commercial Timbers

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H. G. Richter and M. J. Dallwitz

Vochysia spp. (Quaruba)

Nomenclature etc. VOCHYSIACEAE. V. citrifolia, V. densiflora, V. divergens, V. diversa, V. duquei, V. ferruginea, V. guianensis, V. guatemalensis, V. hondurensis, V. lanceolata, V. leguiana, V. lehmannii, V. maxima, V. obidensis, V, obscura, V. tetraphylla, V. tomentosa. Trade and local names: quaruba, tin-tin (BR). Not protected under CITES regulations.

Description based on 27 specimens. Tree. Geographic distribution: Mexico and Central America and tropical South America.

General. Heartwood basically red (pinkish brown). Sapwood colour similar to heartwood colour, or distinct from heartwood colour. Density 0.33–0.5 g/cm³.

Vessels. Wood diffuse-porous. Vessels in multiples. Average tangential vessel diameter 198–412 µm. Average number of vessels/mm² 2–4. Average vessel element length 370–610 µm. Perforation plates simple. Intervessel pits alternate, average diameter (vertical) 6–11 µm, vestured. Vessel-ray pits with distinct borders, similar to intervessel pits. Helical thickenings absent.

Tracheids and fibres. Fibres of medium wall thickness. Average fibre length 1080–1680 µm. Fibre pits mainly restricted to radial walls, simple to minutely bordered. Fibres non-septate.

Axial parenchyma. Axial parenchyma banded. Axial parenchyma paratracheal. Paratracheal axial parenchyma aliform, or confluent. Aliform parenchyma lozenge. Axial parenchyma as strands. Average number of cells per axial parenchyma strand 2–8.

Rays. Rays 3–7 per tangential mm, multiseriate (also if only few), 3–7 cells wide. Rays of two distinct sizes. Rays composed of two or more cell types (heterocellular). Heterocellular rays with square and upright cells restricted to marginal rows, with more than 4 marginal rows of upright or square cells.

Secretory structures. Intercellular canals present, traumatic origin, axial type.

Mineral inclusions. Crystals not observed. Silica not observed.

Physical and chemical tests. Heartwood not fluorescent. Water extract not fluorescent; basically colourless to brown or shade of brown. Ethanol extract not fluorescent. Colour of ethanol extract colourless to brown or shade of brown. Chrome azurol-S test positive.

Illustrations. • Macro images. Vochysia surinamensis. Transverse. Radial. • Transverse section: V. tomentosa. Vochysia tomentosa. • Transverse section: V. bifalcata (traumatic resin canals). Vochysia bifalcata. Traumatic axial canals (TRC) frequent in Vochysia species. TRC. TRC. • Transverse section: V. surinamensis. Vochysia surinamensis. Note presence of idioblasts (IB) in axial parenchyma tissue. IB. IB. • Tangential section: V. densiflora. Vochysia densiflora. • Radial section: V. tomentosa. Vochysia tomentosa.


The interactive key allows access to the character list, illustrations, full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting specified attributes, summaries of attributes within groups of taxa, and geographical distribution.

Cite this publication as: ‘Richter, H.G., and Dallwitz, M.J. 2000 onwards. Commercial timbers: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval. In English, French, German, Portuguese, and Spanish. Version: 25th June 2009. http://delta-intkey.com’.

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