Commercial Timbers


H. G. Richter and M. J. Dallwitz

Artocarpus spp. (Terap)

Nomenclature etc. MORACEAE. Artocarpus chaplasha Roxb., A. elasticus Reinw. ex Blume, A. scortechinii King, Artocarpus spp.. The trade timber 'terap' comprises these light weight Artocarpus species but may also contain timber of the related genus Parartocarpus and the species Antiaris toxicaria (Pers.) Lesch. Trade and local names: terap, pudau (MY); teureup (ID); antipolo (PH); ka-ok (TH). Not protected under CITES regulations.

Tree. Geographic distribution: India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka to Indomalesia.

General. Heartwood basically light yellowish to golden brown. Sapwood colour distinct from heartwood colour. Density 0.35–0.62 g/cm³. With interlocked grain.

Vessels. Wood diffuse-porous. Vessels in multiples, commonly short (2–3 vessels) radial rows. Average tangential vessel diameter 160–370 µm. Average number of vessels/mm² 3–6(–9). Perforation plates simple. Intervessel pits alternate, average diameter (vertical) 8–13 µm. Vessel-ray pits with reduced borders or apparently simple, rounded or angular or horizontal to vertical. Tyloses in vessels present, thinwalled. Other deposits in heartwood vessels present (white or yellowish), tyloses occasionally sclerotic.

Tracheids and fibres. Fibres very thin-walled, or of medium wall thickness. Average fibre length 1200–1600 µm. Fibre pits mainly restricted to radial walls, simple to minutely bordered.

Axial parenchyma. Axial parenchyma not banded. Axial parenchyma paratracheal. Paratracheal axial parenchyma vasicentric, or aliform, or confluent. Aliform parenchyma lozenge. Axial parenchyma as strands. Average number of cells per axial parenchyma strand 3–4.

Rays. Rays 3–7 per tangential mm, multiseriate (also if only few), 3–6(–10) cells wide. Height of large rays commonly over 1000 µm. Rays composed of two or more cell types (heterocellular). Heterocellular rays with square and upright cells restricted to marginal rows, mostly 1 marginal row of upright or square cells. Sheath cells occasionally present.

Secretory structures. Laticifers or tanniniferous tubes present. Small latex tubes in rays.

Mineral inclusions. Crystals not observed. Silica present, as vitreous silica, in axial parenchyma or in fibres or in vessels. Vitrious silica observed in: A. elasticus (vessels, axial parenchyma, fibres) A. indicus (axial parenchyma), A. kemando (axial parenchyma), A. lakoocha (vessels, axial parenchyma), A. sepicanus (vessels, fibres, axial parenchyma).

Illustrations. • Transverse section. Artocarpus chaplasha. Inset: Fibres with large lumina and relatively thin walls. • Tangential section. Artocarpus chaplasha. Note small latex tubes in rays (LT). LT . LT . • Radial section. Artocarpus chaplasha. Note latex tube in ray (LT). LT. • Silica inclusions. Artocarpus lakoocha. Vitrious silica lining vessel and tyloses walls. Vitrious silica blocks in fibre lumina.

The interactive key allows access to the character list, illustrations, full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting specified attributes, summaries of attributes within groups of taxa, and geographical distribution.

Cite this publication as: ‘Richter, H.G., and Dallwitz, M.J. 2000 onwards. Commercial timbers: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval. In English, French, German, Portuguese, and Spanish. Version: 25th June 2009.’.