Commercial Timbers


H. G. Richter and M. J. Dallwitz

Dinizia excelsa Ducke (Angelim vermelho)

Nomenclature etc. FABACEAE-MIMOSOIDEAE. Trade and local names: angelim pedra verdadeiro, faveira grande, angelim falso, faveira dura, faveira ferro (BR). Not protected under CITES regulations.

Description based on 5 specimens. Tree. Geographic distribution: tropical South America (Amazon region only).

General. Growth ring boundaries indistinct or absent. Heartwood basically brown to red, without streaks. Sapwood colour distinct from heartwood colour. Odour distinct (very unpleasant and persistent). Density 0.9–1.2 g/cm³.

Vessels. Vessels present. Wood diffuse-porous. Vessels arranged in no specific pattern, in multiples, commonly short (2–3 vessels) radial rows. Two distinct vessel diameter classes absent. Average tangential vessel diameter 160–200 µm; diameter of vessel lumina: large. Average number of vessels/mm² 3–7; vessels per square millimetre very few to few. Perforation plates simple. Intervessel pits alternate, average diameter (vertical) 5–7 µm, small, vestured. Vessel-ray pits with distinct borders, similar to intervessel pits. Helical thickenings absent. Tyloses in vessels absent. Other deposits in heartwood vessels present (dark reddish brown as well as occasionally light coloured contents).

Tracheids and fibres. Vascular or vasicentric tracheids sporadic to absent. Fibres very thick-walled. Fibre pits mainly restricted to radial walls, simple to minutely bordered. Helical thickenings absent. Fibres non-septate.

Axial parenchyma. Axial parenchyma present, banded. Axial parenchyma bands marginal (or seemingly marginal), fine, up to three cells wide (mostly just 1–2 cell rows). Axial parenchyma apotracheal and paratracheal. Apotracheal axial parenchyma diffuse (frequently isolated parenchyma cells, non-crystalliferous). Paratracheal axial parenchyma aliform and confluent. Aliform parenchyma lozenge. Axial parenchyma as strands. Average number of cells per axial parenchyma strand 2–5. Unlignified parenchyma absent.

Rays. Rays present, 5–8 per tangential mm, multiseriate (also if only few), (2–)3 cells wide, narrow (2–3 seriate). Rays with multiseriate portions as wide as uniseriate portions absent. Aggregate rays absent. Rays of one size. Height of large rays up to 500 µm. Rays composed of a single cell type (homocellular) and two or more cell types (heterocellular); homocellular ray cells procumbent. Heterocellular rays with square and upright cells restricted to marginal rows, mostly 1 marginal row of upright or square cells. Sheath cells absent. Tile cells absent. Perforated ray cells absent. Disjunctive ray parenchyma end walls indistinct or absent. Rays predominantly homocellular, rarely heterocellular.

Storied structures. Storied structure absent.

Secretory structures. Oil and mucilage cells absent. Intercellular canals absent. Laticifers or tanniniferous tubes absent.

Cambial variants. Included phloem absent. Other cambial variants absent.

Mineral inclusions. Crystals not observed. Cystoliths absent. Silica not observed.

Physical and chemical tests. Splinter burns to full ash. Ash white to grey.

Illustrations. • Macro images. Dinizia excelsa. Transverse. Radial. • Transverse section. Dinizia excelsa. • Tangential section. Dinizia excelsa. • Radial section. Dinizia excelsa.

The interactive key allows access to the character list, illustrations, full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting specified attributes, summaries of attributes within groups of taxa, and geographical distribution.

Cite this publication as: ‘Richter, H.G., and Dallwitz, M.J. 2000 onwards. Commercial timbers: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval. In English, French, German, Portuguese, and Spanish. Version: 25th June 2009.’.