Commercial Timbers


H. G. Richter and M. J. Dallwitz

Apuleia leiocarpa (Vog.) Macbride (Grapia, yvyra pere)

Nomenclature etc. FABACEAE-CAESALPINIOIDEAE. Syn.: Apuleia praecox Mart. Trade and local names: yvyra pere (PY); garapa, grapiapunha, muirajuba, barajuba, muiratauá, amarelinho, gema de ovo, jataí-amarelo (BR); ibira peré, grapia, apócope de grapiapuña, ibira-piapuña (AR). Not protected under CITES regulations.

Description based on 9 specimens. Tree. Geographic distribution: southern Brazil and temperate South America.

General. Growth ring boundaries distinct or indistinct or absent. Growth ring limits sometimes distinct, sometimes indistinct; if distinct, demarcated by darker latewood band. Heartwood basically brown and yellow, without streaks. Sapwood colour similar to heartwood colour, or distinct from heartwood colour. Odour indistinct or absent. Density 0.78–0.81 g/cm³. Sapwood very wide, beige.

Vessels. Vessels present. Wood diffuse-porous. Vessels arranged in no specific pattern, in multiples, commonly short (2–3 vessels) radial rows. Vessel outline rounded. Two distinct vessel diameter classes absent. Average tangential vessel diameter 70–100–120 µm; diameter of vessel lumina: medium. Average number of vessels/mm² 20–30; vessels per square millimetre moderately numerous. Average vessel element length 200–300 µm. Average vessel element length short. Perforation plates simple. Intervessel pits alternate, average diameter (vertical) 10–14 µm, large, vestured. Vessel-ray pits with distinct borders, similar to intervessel pits, of uniform size or type, of the same type in adjacent elements, located throughout the ray. Helical thickenings absent. Tyloses in vessels absent. Other deposits in heartwood vessels present, yellow or amber, more or less frequent.

Tracheids and fibres. Vascular or vasicentric tracheids sporadic to absent. Fibres of medium wall thickness. Average fibre length 600–900 µm. Average fibre length short. Fibre pits mainly restricted to radial walls, simple to minutely bordered. Helical thickenings absent. Fibres septate and non-septate. Septate fibres evenly distributed. Sepate fibres rare, with one or two septae.

Axial parenchyma. Axial parenchyma present, banded and not banded. Axial parenchyma bands marginal (or seemingly marginal) and not marginal (or seemingly marginal), fine, up to three cells wide. Axial parenchyma paratracheal. Paratracheal axial parenchyma aliform, confluent, and unilateral. Aliform parenchyma lozenge. Axial parenchyma as strands. Average number of cells per axial parenchyma strand 2–4. Unlignified parenchyma absent. Parenchyma strands mostly 3–4, few only 2 cells long.

Rays. Rays present, multiseriate (also if only few), 2 cells wide, narrow (2–3 seriate). Rays with multiseriate portions as wide as uniseriate portions absent. Aggregate rays absent. Rays of one size. Height of large rays up to 500 µm. Rays composed of a single cell type (homocellular) and two or more cell types (heterocellular); homocellular ray cells procumbent. Heterocellular rays with square and upright cells restricted to marginal rows, mostly 1 marginal row of upright or square cells. Sheath cells absent. Tile cells absent. Perforated ray cells absent. Disjunctive ray parenchyma end walls indistinct or absent. Uniseriate rays rare and much lower than the 2–3 seriate rays.

Storied structures. Storied structure present, all rays storied, axial parenchyma storied, vessel elements storied, fibres not storied. Number of ray tiers per axial millimetre 3–4. Storied structure generally regular, locally also irregular or absent.

Secretory structures. Oil and mucilage cells absent. Intercellular canals absent. Laticifers or tanniniferous tubes absent.

Cambial variants. Included phloem absent. Other cambial variants absent.

Mineral inclusions. Crystals present, prismatic, located in axial parenchyma cells. Crystal-containing axial parenchyma cells chambered. Number of crystals per cell or chamber one. Crystal containing cells of normal size. Cystoliths absent. Silica present, as grains and in aggregates, in rays cells and in axial parenchyma. Silica mostly in marginal cell rows.

Physical and chemical tests. Heartwood not fluorescent. Water extract not fluorescent; basically yellow or shade of yellow. Ethanol extract not fluorescent. Colour of ethanol extract yellow or shade of yellow. Splinter burns to full ash. Ash white to grey.

Illustrations. • Macro images. Apuleia leiocarpa. Transverse. Radial. Tangential. • Transverse section. Apuleia leiocarpa. • Tangential section. Apuleia leiocarpa. • Radial section. Apuleia leiocarpa. • Intervessel pits. Apulaia leiocarpa. Note: large, alternate nearly circular intervessel pits, vestured. • Crystals and silica. Apuleia leiocarpa. Note: prismatic crystals (left) and silica (right) in axial parenchyma.

The interactive key allows access to the character list, illustrations, full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting specified attributes, summaries of attributes within groups of taxa, and geographical distribution.

Cite this publication as: ‘Richter, H.G., and Dallwitz, M.J. 2000 onwards. Commercial timbers: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval. In English, French, German, Portuguese, and Spanish. Version: 25th June 2009.’.