Commercial Timbers


H. G. Richter and M. J. Dallwitz

Detarium senegalense Gmel., D. macrocarpum Harms (Boiré)

Nomenclature etc. CEASALPINIACEAE. D. senegalense - Syn.: D. heudelotianum Bail. Trade and local names: boiré (DE, CI), mambode (DE, GW), bodo (CI), kpuyai (LR), bowiwasi, takyikyroa (GH), alen (GA), kolei, kpay (LR), ogbogbo (NG), tallow tree (GB); D. senegalense: bobode, boiré; D. macrocarpum: aboranzork, enouk, modhon. Not protected under CITES regulations.

Tree. Geographic distribution: tropical Africa.

General. Growth ring boundaries distinct. Demarcated by marginal parenchyma bands. Heartwood basically brown (often copper brown) brown to red brown to purple, with streaks (dark brown to black (resin canals); colour striping irregular, not always distinct). Sapwood colour distinct from heartwood colour. Odour indistinct or absent. Density 0.65–0.75 g/cm³.

Vessels. Wood diffuse-porous. Vessels in multiples, commonly short (2–3 vessels) radial rows (radial groups of 3 and some clusters occasionally present). Average tangential vessel diameter 145–250–360 µm (60–155–225 fide Wagenführ). Average number of vessels/mm² 2. Perforation plates simple. Intervessel pits alternate, average diameter (vertical) 5–7 µm, vestured. Vessel-ray pits with distinct borders, similar to intervessel pits. Helical thickenings absent. Other deposits in heartwood vessels present (dark reddish brown).

Tracheids and fibres. Fibres of medium wall thickness. Average fibre length 575–935–1405 µm. Fibre pits mainly restricted to radial walls, simple to minutely bordered. Fibres non-septate. Predominantly in radial arrangement.

Axial parenchyma. Axial parenchyma present, banded and not banded. Axial parenchyma bands marginal (or seemingly marginal), fine, up to three cells wide or coarse, more than three cells wide. Frequently in combination with resin canals. Axial parenchyma apotracheal and paratracheal. Apotracheal axial parenchyma diffuse. Paratracheal axial parenchyma vasicentric to aliform. Aliform parenchyma lozenge and winged. Axial parenchyma as strands. Average number of cells per axial parenchyma strand 2–4–6. Also unilaterally confluent in conjunction with resin canals.

Rays. Rays 3–4 per tangential mm, multiseriate (also if only few), (1–)3–4–6 cells wide. Rays composed of a single cell type (homocellular) and two or more cell types (heterocellular); homocellular ray cells procumbent. Heterocellular rays with square and upright cells restricted to marginal rows, mostly 1 marginal row of upright or square cells to mostly 2–4 marginal rows of upright or square cells. Mixed homocelular and heterocelular rays in a single specimen.

Storied structures. Storied structure absent.

Secretory structures. Intercellular canals present, non-traumatic origin, axial type, in long tangential lines or in short tangential lines.

Mineral inclusions. Crystals present, prismatic, located in axial parenchyma cells. Crystal-containing axial parenchyma cells chambered. Number of crystals per cell or chamber one. Cystoliths absent. Silica not observed.

Illustrations. • Transverse section. Detarium senegalense. Note axial intercellular canals (ICb) in tangential bands. ICb. • Tangential section. Detarium senegalense. • Radial section. Detarium senegalense.

The interactive key allows access to the character list, illustrations, full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting specified attributes, summaries of attributes within groups of taxa, and geographical distribution.

Cite this publication as: ‘Richter, H.G., and Dallwitz, M.J. 2000 onwards. Commercial timbers: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval. In English, French, German, Portuguese, and Spanish. Version: 25th June 2009.’.