Commercial Timbers


H. G. Richter and M. J. Dallwitz

Dialium platysepalum Baker, Dialium spp. (Keranji)

Nomenclature etc. FABACEAE-CAESALPINIOIDEAE. + Dialium indum L., D. procerum (v. Steenis) Stey., D. kunstleri etc. Trade and local names: keranji, kranji (ID); velvet tamarind, tamarind plum (GB); taung-kaye (MM); kralanh, k.lomié (KH); kayi-khao, yi-thongbung (TH); xoay (VN). Not protected under CITES regulations.

Tree. Geographic distribution: Burma to Indomalesia.

General. Growth ring boundaries indistinct or absent. Heartwood basically brown, without streaks. Sapwood colour distinct from heartwood colour. Odour indistinct or absent. Density 0.75–1.05 g/cm³.

Vessels. Wood diffuse-porous. Vessels arranged in no specific pattern, in multiples, commonly short (2–3 vessels) radial rows or radial rows of 4 or more. Two distinct vessel diameter classes absent. Average tangential vessel diameter 120–320 µm. Average number of vessels/mm² 3–7. Average vessel element length 260–470 µm. Perforation plates simple. Intervessel pits alternate, average diameter (vertical) 8–10 µm, vestured. Vessel-ray pits with distinct borders, similar to intervessel pits. Helical thickenings absent. Tyloses in vessels absent. Other deposits in heartwood vessels present (brown and white).

Tracheids and fibres. Vascular or vasicentric tracheids sporadic to absent. Fibres of medium wall thickness to very thick-walled. Average fibre length 900–1930 µm. Fibre pits mainly restricted to radial walls, simple to minutely bordered. Helical thickenings absent. Fibres non-septate.

Axial parenchyma. Axial parenchyma banded. Axial parenchyma bands fine, up to three cells wide or coarse, more than three cells wide, 3–5 per radial mm. Axial parenchyma paratracheal. Paratracheal axial parenchyma scanty. Axial parenchyma as strands. Average number of cells per axial parenchyma strand 3–4. Unlignified parenchyma absent.

Rays. Rays 6–11(–19) per tangential mm, multiseriate (also if only few), 2–3 cells wide. Rays with multiseriate portions as wide as uniseriate portions absent. Aggregate rays absent. Rays of one size. Rays composed of a single cell type (homocellular); homocellular ray cells procumbent. Sheath cells absent. Tile cells absent. Perforated ray cells absent. Disjunctive ray parenchyma end walls indistinct or absent.

Storied structures. Storied structure present, all rays storied, axial parenchyma storied, vessel elements storied, fibres storied. Number of ray tiers per axial millimetre 2–3.

Secretory structures. Oil and mucilage cells absent. Intercellular canals absent. Laticifers or tanniniferous tubes absent.

Cambial variants. Included phloem absent. Other cambial variants absent.

Mineral inclusions. Crystals present, prismatic, located in axial parenchyma cells. Crystal-containing axial parenchyma cells chambered. Number of crystals per cell or chamber one. Silica present, as grains, in axial parenchyma.

Physical and chemical tests. Heartwood not fluorescent. Water extract not fluorescent; basically colourless to brown or shade of brown. Ethanol extract bright blue fluorescent. Colour of ethanol extract colourless to brown or shade of brown. Splinter burns to charcoal.

Illustrations. • Transverse section. Dialium platysepalum. • Tangential section. Dialium platysepalum. • Radial section. Dialium platysepalum.

The interactive key allows access to the character list, illustrations, full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting specified attributes, summaries of attributes within groups of taxa, and geographical distribution.

Cite this publication as: ‘Richter, H.G., and Dallwitz, M.J. 2000 onwards. Commercial timbers: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval. In English, French, German, Portuguese, and Spanish. Version: 25th June 2009.’.