Commercial Timbers


H. G. Richter and M. J. Dallwitz

Calophyllum brasiliense Camb. (Jacareúba, palo de maría)

Nomenclature etc. GUTTIFERAE. Trade and local names: arary (PY); santa maría, palo de maría, leche maría, maría (cAm, sAm). Not protected under CITES regulations.

Description based on 7 specimens. Tree. Geographic distribution: Mexico and Central America and tropical South America.

General. Heartwood basically red to yellow (pink or yellowish pink to brick red). Sapwood colour similar to heartwood colour, or distinct from heartwood colour (sapwood lighter in color but not always clearly differentiated from heartwood). Density 0.5–0.65 g/cm³.

Vessels. Wood diffuse-porous. Vessels arranged in diagonal and/or radial pattern, exclusively solitary. Average tangential vessel diameter (80–)130–220(–290) µm. Average number of vessels/mm² 4–10. Average vessel element length 280–670–1170 µm. Perforation plates simple. Intervessel pits alternate, average diameter (vertical) 5 µm. Vessel-ray pits with distinct borders, similar to intervessel pits, of uniform size or type.

Tracheids and fibres. Vascular or vasicentric tracheids commonly present. Fibres of medium wall thickness. Average fibre length 780–1280–1670 µm. Fibre pits common in both radial and tangential walls, distinctly bordered. Fibres non-septate.

Axial parenchyma. Axial parenchyma banded. Axial parenchyma bands marginal (or seemingly marginal), fine, up to three cells wide or coarse, more than three cells wide. Axial parenchyma paratracheal. Paratracheal axial parenchyma vasicentric. Axial parenchyma as strands. Average number of cells per axial parenchyma strand 5–8.

Rays. Rays 9–19 per tangential mm, exclusively uniseriate. Rays composed of two or more cell types (heterocellular). Heterocellular rays with square and upright cells restricted to marginal rows, mostly 1 marginal row of upright or square cells.

Secretory structures. Intercellular canals absent.

Cambial variants. Included phloem absent.

Mineral inclusions. Crystals present, prismatic, located in axial parenchyma cells. Crystal-containing axial parenchyma cells chambered. Number of crystals per cell or chamber one. Silica not observed.

Physical and chemical tests. Heartwood not fluorescent. Water extract fluorescent (very light blue); basically colourless to brown or shade of brown. Ethanol extract fluorescent (very light blue). Colour of ethanol extract colourless to brown or shade of brown.

Illustrations. • Macro images. Calophyllum brasiliense. Transverse. Radial. • Transverse section. Calophyllum brasiliense. • Tangential section. Calophyllum brasiliense. • Radial section. Calophyllum brasiliense.

The interactive key allows access to the character list, illustrations, full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting specified attributes, summaries of attributes within groups of taxa, and geographical distribution.

Cite this publication as: ‘Richter, H.G., and Dallwitz, M.J. 2000 onwards. Commercial timbers: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval. In English, French, German, Portuguese, and Spanish. Version: 25th June 2009.’.