Commercial Timbers


H. G. Richter and M. J. Dallwitz

Entandrophragma angolense (Welw.) C. DC. (Tiama)

Nomenclature etc. MELIACEAE. Syn.: Swietenia angolensis Welw. Trade and local names: tiama (DE, CI, FR, CD, NL); edinam (DE, GH); gedu nohor, gedu lohor (GB, NG); koupri, lokoa popo (CI); abenbegne (GA); timbi (CM); ipaki, longo, mukumi (CG); mukuso, muyovou (UG); kalungi, lifaki (CD); livuite (AO). Not protected under CITES regulations.

Tree. Geographic distribution: tropical Africa.

General. Growth ring boundaries distinct. Heartwood basically brown to red, without streaks. Sapwood colour distinct from heartwood colour. Odour indistinct or absent. Density 0.44–0.52–0.59 g/cm³.

Vessels. Wood diffuse-porous. Vessels in multiples, commonly short (2–3 vessels) radial rows. Average tangential vessel diameter 140–170–220 µm; diameter of vessel lumina: large. Average number of vessels/mm² 2–4–8; vessels per square millimetre very few to few. Average vessel element length 430–600 µm. Average vessel element length medium. Perforation plates simple. Intervessel pits alternate, average diameter (vertical) 2–3 µm. Vessel-ray pits with distinct borders, similar to intervessel pits. Helical thickenings absent. Other deposits in heartwood vessels present (reddish brown).

Tracheids and fibres. Fibres of medium wall thickness. Average fibre length 960–1640–2075 µm. Fibre pits mainly restricted to radial walls, simple to minutely bordered. Fibres septate and non-septate (very few). Septate fibres evenly distributed.

Axial parenchyma. Axial parenchyma present, banded. Axial parenchyma bands marginal (or seemingly marginal), fine, up to three cells wide. Axial parenchyma paratracheal. Paratracheal axial parenchyma vasicentric. Axial parenchyma as strands. Average number of cells per axial parenchyma strand 8.

Rays. Rays (2–)3–5 per tangential mm, multiseriate (also if only few), 3–5(–7) cells wide. Rays composed of two or more cell types (heterocellular). Heterocellular rays with square and upright cells restricted to marginal rows, mostly 1 marginal row of upright or square cells or mostly 2–4 marginal rows of upright or square cells. Tile cells absent.

Storied structures. Storied structure absent.

Secretory structures. Intercellular canals present, traumatic origin, axial type, in short tangential lines. Laticifers or tanniniferous tubes absent.

Mineral inclusions. Crystals present, prismatic, located in ray cells or axial parenchyma cells. Crystal-containing ray cells predominantly upright and/or square and procumbent, upright and/or square ray cells chambered or not chambered. Crystal-containing axial parenchyma cells chambered, or not chambered. Number of crystals per cell or chamber one. Silica not observed.

Illustrations. • Macro images. Entandrophragma angolense. Transverse. Radial. • Transverse section. Entandrophragma angolense. • Tangential section. Entandrophragma angolense. • Radial section. Entandrophragma angolense.

The interactive key allows access to the character list, illustrations, full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting specified attributes, summaries of attributes within groups of taxa, and geographical distribution.

Cite this publication as: ‘Richter, H.G., and Dallwitz, M.J. 2000 onwards. Commercial timbers: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval. In English, French, German, Portuguese, and Spanish. Version: 25th June 2009.’.