Commercial Timbers


H. G. Richter and M. J. Dallwitz

Ceriops tagal (Perr.) C.B. Robinson (Bakau)

Nomenclature etc. RHIZOPHORACEAE. Syn.: Ceriops candolliana Wight & Arn.; C. timoriensis Domin; C. boiviniana Tul.; Rhizophora tagal Perr.; R. timoriensis DC. Trade and local names: bakau, engar, tangar (MY); tingi, tonggi, tungud, palun, bido-bido (ID); prong, prong deng, plong, me (TH); kabiang (MM); mada (IN-and); goran, guttia, chauri (IN); tangal, tagasa, tigasan (PH); spurred mangrove (AU); mkaka (TZ); mkandaa, mkoko mtune, mkoko mwekundu (eAfr). Not protected under CITES regulations.

Description based on 4. Tree. Geographic distribution: Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia to Australia, or tropical Africa to Madagascar & other islands.

General. Growth ring boundaries indistinct or absent. Heartwood basically brown to red (often with orange hues), without streaks. Sapwood colour distinct from heartwood colour. Odour indistinct or absent. Density 0.8–0.9 g/cm³.

Vessels. Wood diffuse-porous. Vessels arranged in no specific pattern, in multiples, commonly short (2–3 vessels) radial rows to radial rows of 4 or more. Two distinct vessel diameter classes absent. Average tangential vessel diameter 20–50 µm; diameter of vessel lumina: small. Average number of vessels/mm² 25–35; vessels per square millimetre moderately numerous. Average vessel element length 300–450 µm. Average vessel element length short. Perforation plates scalariform, with 5–10 bars. Bars few and thick. Intervessel pits scalariform, not vestured. Perforations strongly inclined and long, very fine bars. Vessel-ray pits of uniform size or type, unilaterally compound and coarse. Crossfield pits "unilaterally compound and large" throughout. Helical thickenings absent. Tyloses in vessels absent. Other deposits in heartwood vessels not observed.

Tracheids and fibres. Vascular or vasicentric tracheids sporadic to absent. Fibres very thick-walled. Fibre pits mainly restricted to radial walls, distinctly bordered. Helical thickenings absent. Fibres non-septate.

Axial parenchyma. Axial parenchyma present, not banded. Axial parenchyma apotracheal and paratracheal. Apotracheal axial parenchyma diffuse. Paratracheal axial parenchyma scanty to vasicentric. Axial parenchyma as strands. Average number of cells per axial parenchyma strand 3–7. Unlignified parenchyma absent.

Rays. Rays 9–16 per tangential mm, multiseriate (also if only few), 2–6 cells wide, of medium width (3–5 seriate). Rays with multiseriate portions as wide as uniseriate portions absent. Aggregate rays absent. Rays of one size. Height of large rays commonly over 1000 µm. Rays composed of a single cell type (homocellular) to two or more cell types (heterocellular); homocellular ray cells procumbent. Heterocellular rays with square and upright cells restricted to marginal rows, mostly 1 marginal row of upright or square cells. Sheath cells absent. Tile cells absent. Perforated ray cells absent. Disjunctive ray parenchyma end walls indistinct or absent.

Storied structures. Storied structure absent.

Secretory structures. Oil and mucilage cells absent. Intercellular canals absent. Laticifers or tanniniferous tubes absent.

Cambial variants. Included phloem absent. Other cambial variants absent.

Mineral inclusions. Crystals present, prismatic, located in ray cells. Crystal-containing ray cells procumbent, upright and/or square ray cells not chambered. Crystals in procumbent ray cells not in radial alignment. Number of crystals per cell or chamber one. Silica not observed.

Illustrations. • Transverse section. Ceriops tagal. • Tangential section. Ceriops tagal. • Radial section. Ceriops tagal.

The interactive key allows access to the character list, illustrations, full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting specified attributes, summaries of attributes within groups of taxa, and geographical distribution.

Cite this publication as: ‘Richter, H.G., and Dallwitz, M.J. 2000 onwards. Commercial timbers: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval. In English, French, German, Portuguese, and Spanish. Version: 25th June 2009.’.