Commercial Timbers


H. G. Richter and M. J. Dallwitz

Terminalia ivorensis A. Chev. (Framiré)

Nomenclature etc. COMBRETACEAE. Trade and local names: framiré (BE, DE, FR, NL), idigbo (FR, GH, NG, GB), agni, bouna, boti, cauri, fela, mboti, onidjo (CI), emeri, emil, frameri (GH), lidia (CM), deohr (LB), black afara, kokango, mboti, ubiri (NG), treme (NG, US), bassi (LR). Not protected under CITES regulations.

Tree. Geographic distribution: tropical Africa.

General. Growth ring boundaries demarcated by latewood with lower vessel frequency and thicker-walled fibres. Heartwood basically brown to yellow to green. Sapwood colour similar to heartwood colour. Density 0.44–0.47–0.55 g/cm³ (Holz aus Aufforstungen meist leichter plantation-grown wood generally lighter in weight).

Vessels. Vessels present. Wood diffuse-porous. Vessels arranged in no specific pattern, in multiples, commonly short (2–3 vessels) radial rows. Two distinct vessel diameter classes absent. Average tangential vessel diameter 200–265–320 µm. Average number of vessels/mm² 3–5–7. Perforation plates simple. Intervessel pits alternate, average diameter (vertical) 8–10 µm, vestured. Vessel-ray pits with distinct borders, similar to intervessel pits. Helical thickenings absent. Tyloses in vessels present, thinwalled.

Tracheids and fibres. Fibres very thin-walled, or of medium wall thickness. Average fibre length 1800–2100–2850 µm. Fibre pits mainly restricted to radial walls (few and indistinct), simple to minutely bordered. Fibres non-septate.

Axial parenchyma. Axial parenchyma present, not banded. Axial parenchyma paratracheal. Paratracheal axial parenchyma vasicentric and aliform. Axial parenchyma as strands. Average number of cells per axial parenchyma strand (4–)6–8.

Rays. Rays 6–9 per tangential mm, multiseriate (also if only few), (1–)2–3(–4) cells wide. Rays composed of a single cell type (homocellular), or two or more cell types (heterocellular) (heterocellular rays rare); homocellular ray cells procumbent. Heterocellular rays with square and upright cells restricted to marginal rows, mostly 1 marginal row of upright or square cells.

Storied structures. Storied structure absent.

Secretory structures. Oil and mucilage cells absent. Intercellular canals present or absent, traumatic origin, axial type, in short tangential lines. Laticifers or tanniniferous tubes absent.

Cambial variants. Included phloem absent.

Mineral inclusions. Crystals not observed. Silica not observed.

Physical and chemical tests. Water extract basically yellow or shade of yellow. Heartwood extractives leaching out when in contact with water.

Illustrations. • Macro images. Terminalia ivorensis. Transverse. Radial. • Transverse section. Terminalia ivorensis. • Tangential section. Terminalia ivorensis. • Radial section. Terminalia ivorensis.

The interactive key allows access to the character list, illustrations, full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting specified attributes, summaries of attributes within groups of taxa, and geographical distribution.

Cite this publication as: ‘Richter, H.G., and Dallwitz, M.J. 2000 onwards. Commercial timbers: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval. In English, French, German, Portuguese, and Spanish. Version: 25th June 2009.’.