Commercial Timbers

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H. G. Richter and M. J. Dallwitz

Neobalanocarpus heimii (King) Ashton (Chengal)

Nomenclature etc. DIPTEROCARPACEAE. Syn.: Balanocarpus heimii King, B. wrayi King, B. accuminatus Heim. Trade and local names: chengal (DE, GB, NL, MY), chingal, penak (MY), takien chan (TH). Not protected under CITES regulations.

Tree. Geographic distribution: Indomalesia (Malay peninsula).

General. Heartwood basically yellow to brown red to brown green to brown (yellowish brown when fresh, darkening to olive or red brown). Sapwood colour distinct from heartwood colour. Density 0.7–0.8 g/cm³.

Vessels. Wood diffuse-porous. Vessels exclusively solitary or in multiples, commonly short (2–3 vessels) radial rows. Average tangential vessel diameter 105–155–210 µm. Perforation plates simple. Intervessel pits alternate, average diameter (vertical) 4–6 µm, vestured. Vessel-ray pits with reduced borders or apparently simple, rounded or angular, of uniform size or type (same type in different sizes). Vessel-parenchyma pits often scalariform. Tyloses in vessels present (frequent), thinwalled.

Tracheids and fibres. Fibres very thick-walled. Fibre pits mainly restricted to radial walls, distinctly bordered.

Axial parenchyma. Axial parenchyma banded and not banded. Axial resin canals enclosed in parenchyma bands. Axial parenchyma apotracheal and paratracheal. Apotracheal axial parenchyma diffuse-in-aggregates. Paratracheal axial parenchyma vasicentric, aliform, confluent, and unilateral (predominantly unilateral, always fine). Aliform parenchyma winged. Axial parenchyma as strands. Average number of cells per axial parenchyma strand 2–4(–6).

Rays. Rays multiseriate (also if only few), (1–)3–5 cells wide. Rays composed of two or more cell types (heterocellular). Heterocellular rays with square and upright cells restricted to marginal rows, mostly 1 marginal row of upright or square cells or mostly 2–4 marginal rows of upright or square cells or with more than 4 marginal rows of upright or square cells. Sheath cells present.

Storied structures. Storied structure present, all rays storied, axial parenchyma storied, vessel elements storied.

Secretory structures. Intercellular canals present, axial type, in long tangential lines or in short tangential lines.

Mineral inclusions. Crystals present, prismatic, located in ray cells. Crystal-containing ray cells upright and/or square and procumbent. Crystals in procumbent ray cells not in radial alignment. Number of crystals per cell or chamber one. Silica not observed.

Illustrations. • Transverse section. Neobalanocarpus heimii. • Tangential section. Neobalanocarpus heimii. • Radial section. Neobalanocarpus heimii.


The interactive key allows access to the character list, illustrations, full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting specified attributes, summaries of attributes within groups of taxa, and geographical distribution.

Cite this publication as: ‘Richter, H.G., and Dallwitz, M.J. 2000 onwards. Commercial timbers: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval. In English, French, German, Portuguese, and Spanish. Version: 25th June 2009. http://delta-intkey.com’.

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