Commercial Timbers


H. G. Richter and M. J. Dallwitz

Daniellia spp. (Faro)

Nomenclature etc. FABACEAE-CAESALPINIOIDEAE. D. ogea (Harms) Rolfe ex Holl. - Syn.: D. similis Craib; D. klainei Pierre, D. oblonga (Rolfe) Hutch. & Dalz.; D. thurifera Bennett. Trade and local names: Daniellia (DE); faro (DE, FR, CI); ogea (GB, NG, GH); omugo, oziya (GB, NG); bolengu (CD); eye dua, shedua; eyele (GH); nsu (CM, GQ); singa (CG); bungbo, besi (LR); santan (SN); whoe, srua (LR); lonlaviol (GA); copal, heyedua, singa-n'dola. Not protected under CITES regulations.

Tree. Geographic distribution: tropical Africa.

General. Growth ring boundaries distinct. Heartwood basically brown to red to white or grey (pale reddish brown), with streaks (dark brown colour striping) or without streaks. Sapwood colour distinct from heartwood colour (sapwood often very wide). Density 0.29–0.45 g/cm³.

Vessels. Wood diffuse-porous. Vessels in multiples, commonly short (2–3 vessels) radial rows and radial rows of 4 or more (rarely up to 10). Average tangential vessel diameter 115–230–380 µm (70–250 fide Wagenführ). Average number of vessels/mm² 3–6. Perforation plates simple. Intervessel pits alternate, average diameter (vertical) 9–12 µm, vestured. Vessel-ray pits with distinct borders, similar to intervessel pits. Parenchyma-vessel pits partly large and with reduced borders. Other deposits in heartwood vessels present (brown).

Tracheids and fibres. Fibres of medium wall thickness. Average fibre length 1250–1660–2000 µm. Fibre pits mainly restricted to radial walls, simple to minutely bordered. Fibres non-septate.

Axial parenchyma. Axial parenchyma banded and not banded. Axial parenchyma bands marginal (or seemingly marginal), fine, up to three cells wide or coarse, more than three cells wide. Axial parenchyma paratracheal. Paratracheal axial parenchyma vasicentric to aliform to confluent. Aliform parenchyma lozenge. Axial parenchyma fusiform and as strands (fusiform strands few). Average number of cells per axial parenchyma strand 2–4.

Rays. Rays multiseriate (also if only few), (1–)3(–4) cells wide. Rays composed of two or more cell types (heterocellular). Heterocellular rays with square and upright cells restricted to marginal rows, predominantly mostly 1 marginal row of upright or square cells or mostly 2–4 marginal rows of upright or square cells. Sheath cells absent.

Storied structures. Storied structure present, all rays storied, axial parenchyma storied, vessel elements storied, fibres storied.

Secretory structures. Intercellular canals present, axial type, diffusely arranged (partly included in marginal parenchyma).

Cambial variants. Included phloem absent.

Mineral inclusions. Crystals present, prismatic, located in ray cells and axial parenchyma cells. Crystal-containing ray cells upright and/or square, upright and/or square ray cells chambered. Crystal-containing axial parenchyma cells chambered. Number of crystals per cell or chamber one. Cystoliths absent. Silica not observed.

Illustrations. • Transverse section. Daniellia ogea. Note axial intercellular canals (IC). IC. IC. IC. IC. • Transverse section. Daniellia klaineana. Note axial intercellular canals (IC). IC. IC. IC. IC. • Tangential section. Daniellia ogea. Storeying of rays regular (left) to irregular (right). • Radial section. Daniellia sp. IC. V. IC = intercellular canal; V = vessel. • Crystals in ras and axial parenchyma. Daniellia ogea. Prismatic crystals in chambered marginal ray cells (occasionally) and chambered axial parenchyma cells.

The interactive key allows access to the character list, illustrations, full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting specified attributes, summaries of attributes within groups of taxa, and geographical distribution.

Cite this publication as: ‘Richter, H.G., and Dallwitz, M.J. 2000 onwards. Commercial timbers: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval. In English, French, German, Portuguese, and Spanish. Version: 25th June 2009.’.