Commercial Timbers

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H. G. Richter and M. J. Dallwitz

Manilkara kauki (L.) Dubard, Manilkara spp. (Sawo)

Nomenclature etc. SAPOTACEAE. + Manilkara celebica, M. fasciculata, M. hexandra, M. kanosensis. Trade and local names: sawo (ID); sawah (MY); duyok-duyok (PH); sner (PG); khayah rgn (MM). Not protected under CITES regulations.

Tree. Geographic distribution: Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia, Indomalesia, and Pacific Islands.

General. Growth ring boundaries indistinct or absent. Heartwood basically brown to red. Sapwood colour distinct from heartwood colour. Density 0.9–1.15 g/cm³.

Vessels. Wood diffuse-porous. Vessels arranged in no specific pattern, in multiples, commonly short (2–3 vessels) radial rows to radial rows of 4 or more. Average tangential vessel diameter 60–150 µm. Average number of vessels/mm² 10–20–24. Perforation plates simple. Intervessel pits alternate, average diameter (vertical) 3–7 µm. Vessel-ray pits with reduced borders or apparently simple, different from intervessel pits, horizontal to vertical, of two distinct sizes or types in the same ray cell, predominantly restricted to marginal rows (rarely in procumbent cells). Tyloses in vessels present, thinwalled to sclerotic. Other deposits in heartwood vessels present.

Tracheids and fibres. Fibres very thick-walled. Average fibre length 1200–1900 µm. Fibre pits mainly restricted to radial walls, simple to minutely bordered. Fibres non-septate.

Axial parenchyma. Axial parenchyma banded. Axial parenchyma bands reticulate, fine, up to three cells wide, 4–8 per radial mm. Axial parenchyma apotracheal. Apotracheal axial parenchyma diffuse, or diffuse-in-aggregates. Axial parenchyma as strands. Average number of cells per axial parenchyma strand 5–8(–12).

Rays. Rays 8–14 per tangential mm, multiseriate (also if only few), (1–)2(–4) cells wide. Rays composed of two or more cell types (heterocellular). Heterocellular rays with square and upright cells restricted to marginal rows, mostly 2–4 marginal rows of upright or square cells.

Mineral inclusions. Crystals present, prismatic, located in rarely ray cells or axial parenchyma cells. Crystal-containing ray cells upright and/or square, upright and/or square ray cells chambered. Crystal-containing axial parenchyma cells chambered. Number of crystals per cell or chamber one. Silica present, as grains, in rays cells or in axial parenchyma.

Illustrations. • Transverse section. Manilkara kauki. • Tangential section. Manilkara kauki. • Radial section. Manilkara kauki.


The interactive key allows access to the character list, illustrations, full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting specified attributes, summaries of attributes within groups of taxa, and geographical distribution.

Cite this publication as: ‘Richter, H.G., and Dallwitz, M.J. 2000 onwards. Commercial timbers: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval. In English, French, German, Portuguese, and Spanish. Version: 25th June 2009. http://delta-intkey.com’.

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