Commercial Timbers


H. G. Richter and M. J. Dallwitz

Diospyros spp. (Schwarze Ebenhölzer, black ebony - Asien)

Nomenclature etc. EBENACEAE. Diospyros ebenum, D. melanoxylon, etc. Trade and local names: D. ebenum: Ceylon ebony, East-Indian ebomy (GB, trade); Ceylon Ebenholz (DE); kalu-wara, karun-kali, tendu, ebans, abnus (IN, LK). D. melanoxylon: Indian ebony (GB, trade); Indisches Ebenholz (DE); kadumberiya, tumbi, bis-tendu (IN). Not protected under CITES regulations.

Tree. Geographic distribution: India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka to Indomalesia.

General. Heartwood basically purple, without streaks. Sapwood colour distinct from heartwood colour. Density 0.9–1.05 g/cm³.

Vessels. Wood diffuse-porous. Vessels in multiples, commonly short (2–3 vessels) radial rows or radial rows of 4 or more. Average tangential vessel diameter 120–160 µm. Average number of vessels/mm² 4–40. Average vessel element length 250–850 µm. Perforation plates simple. Intervessel pits alternate, average diameter (vertical) 3–5 µm. Vessel-ray pits with distinct borders, similar to intervessel pits. Helical thickenings absent. Other deposits in heartwood vessels present (black, some reddish-brown).

Tracheids and fibres. Fibres very thick-walled. Fibre pits common in both radial and tangential walls, distinctly bordered.

Axial parenchyma. Axial parenchyma banded. Axial parenchyma bands reticulate, fine, up to three cells wide. Bands predominantly uniseriate, some possibly indicating growth boundaries (marginal?). Axial parenchyma apotracheal, or paratracheal. Apotracheal axial parenchyma diffuse-in-aggregates. Paratracheal axial parenchyma scanty, or vasicentric. Axial parenchyma as strands. Average number of cells per axial parenchyma strand 4–8.

Rays. Rays 15–20 per tangential mm, exclusively uniseriate or multiseriate (also if only few). Rays composed of two or more cell types (heterocellular). Heterocellular rays with square and upright cells restricted to marginal rows, mostly 1 marginal row of upright or square cells or mostly 2–4 marginal rows of upright or square cells. Sporadically also biseriate rays.

Storied structures. Storied structure absent.

Mineral inclusions. Crystals present, prismatic, located in ray cells. Crystal-containing ray cells upright and/or square or procumbent. Crystal-containing axial parenchyma cells chambered. Number of crystals per cell or chamber one. Silica not observed.

Illustrations. • Transverse section. Diospyros ebenum. • Tangential section. Diospyros ebenum. • Radial section. Diospyros ebenum. • Crystals in rays. Diospyros ebenum. Prismatic crystals almost exclusively in rays (CRr), very few in axial parenchyma (CRp). CRr. CRp.

The interactive key allows access to the character list, illustrations, full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting specified attributes, summaries of attributes within groups of taxa, and geographical distribution.

Cite this publication as: ‘Richter, H.G., and Dallwitz, M.J. 2000 onwards. Commercial timbers: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval. In English, French, German, Portuguese, and Spanish. Version: 25th June 2009.’.