Commercial Timbers


H. G. Richter and M. J. Dallwitz

Erisma spp. (Cambará)

Nomenclature etc. VOCHYSIACEAE. E. uncinnatum Warm., E. calcaratum (Link) Warm., E. lanceolatum Stafleu. Trade and local names: cambará, jaboty, j. da terra firme, quaruba-rana, q. vermelha, cedrinho (BR); singri kwari, warapa kwarie (SR); letèballi bèlèro (GY); mureíllo (VE); man onti kouali, kokopaie (GF). Not protected under CITES regulations.

Tree. Geographic distribution: tropical South America.

General. Heartwood basically brown to red (light). Sapwood colour distinct from heartwood colour. Density 0.5–0.7 g/cm³.

Vessels. Wood diffuse-porous. Vessels in multiples, commonly short (2–3 vessels) radial rows. Average tangential vessel diameter (120–)170–350 µm. Average number of vessels/mm² 1–6. Perforation plates simple. Intervessel pits alternate, average diameter (vertical) 8–11 µm, vestured. Vessel-ray pits with reduced borders or apparently simple, rounded or angular (mostly oval), of uniform size or type. Tyloses in vessels present, thinwalled.

Tracheids and fibres. Fibres of medium wall thickness. Fibre pits mainly restricted to radial walls, simple to minutely bordered or distinctly bordered.

Axial parenchyma. Axial parenchyma banded. Axial parenchyma bands bands much wider than rays, fine, up to three cells wide or coarse, more than three cells wide, 2 per radial mm. Phloem islands embedded in parenchyma bands. Axial parenchyma paratracheal. Paratracheal axial parenchyma unilateral. Axial parenchyma as strands. Average number of cells per axial parenchyma strand 3–6.

Rays. Rays 4–10 per tangential mm, multiseriate (also if only few), 1–3 cells wide. Rays composed of two or more cell types (heterocellular). Heterocellular rays with square and upright cells restricted to marginal rows, mostly 1 marginal row of upright or square cells or mostly 2–4 marginal rows of upright or square cells or with more than 4 marginal rows of upright or square cells. Disjunctive ray parenchyma end walls distinct. Uniseriate rays frequent and composed solely of upright cells; codes for frequency and width of rays apply to multiseriate rays only.

Cambial variants. Included phloem present, diffuse.

Mineral inclusions. Crystals only in Erisma calcaratum present, prismatic, located in axial parenchyma cells. Crystal-containing axial parenchyma cells chambered. Number of crystals per cell or chamber one. Silica not observed.

Illustrations. • Macro images. Erisma uncinatum. Transverse. Tangential. • Transverse section. Erisma uncinatum (note dark colored islands of included phloem -- IP). IP. IP. IP. • Tangential section. Erisma uncinatum (note dark colored islands of included phloem -- IP). IP. • Radial section. Erisma uncinatum (note dark colored islands of included phloem -- IP). IP.

The interactive key allows access to the character list, illustrations, full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting specified attributes, summaries of attributes within groups of taxa, and geographical distribution.

Cite this publication as: ‘Richter, H.G., and Dallwitz, M.J. 2000 onwards. Commercial timbers: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval. In English, French, German, Portuguese, and Spanish. Version: 25th June 2009.’.