Commercial Timbers


H. G. Richter and M. J. Dallwitz

Phellodendron amurense Rupr., Phellodendron spp. (Amur cork tree)

Nomenclature etc. RUTACEAE. Trade and local names: Amur cork tree, cork tree (GB); Korkbaum (japanischer, mandschurischer)(DE); kihada (JP); hwangbyeog-namu (KR). Not protected under CITES regulations.

Tree. Geographic distribution: temperate Asia.

General. Growth ring boundaries distinct. Heartwood basically brown, without streaks. Sapwood colour distinct from heartwood colour. Odour indistinct or absent. Density 0.45–0.53 g/cm³.

Vessels. Wood ring-porous. Vessels arranged in tangential bands or diagonal and/or radial pattern (tangential to diagonal, only small vessels in last formed latewood), in multiples, commonly short (2–3 vessels) radial rows or radial rows of 4 or more or in clusters (pore clusters only in last formed latewood). Average tangential vessel diameter 100–250 µm. Perforation plates simple. Intervessel pits alternate, average diameter (vertical) 5–8 µm, not vestured. Vessel-ray pits with distinct borders, similar to intervessel pits. Helical thickenings present, only in narrow vessel elements, throughout the body of vessel elements. Tyloses in vessels absent. Other deposits in heartwood vessels present (yellowish brown).

Tracheids and fibres. Vascular or vasicentric tracheids sporadic to absent. Fibres very thin-walled, or of medium wall thickness. Fibre pits mainly restricted to radial walls, simple to minutely bordered. Helical thickenings absent. Fibres non-septate.

Axial parenchyma. Axial parenchyma banded. Axial parenchyma bands marginal (or seemingly marginal), fine, up to three cells wide. Tangential/diagonal rows of small latewood pores accompanied by mostly uniseriate bands, adaxially and abaxially. Axial parenchyma paratracheal. Paratracheal axial parenchyma scanty to vasicentric. Axial parenchyma as strands. Average number of cells per axial parenchyma strand 3–5. Unlignified parenchyma absent.

Rays. Rays 3–5 per tangential mm, multiseriate (also if only few), 2–5 cells wide. Rays with multiseriate portions as wide as uniseriate portions absent. Aggregate rays absent. Rays of one size. Height of large rays commonly 500 to 1000 µm. Rays composed of a single cell type (homocellular); homocellular ray cells procumbent. Sheath cells absent. Tile cells absent. Perforated ray cells absent. Disjunctive ray parenchyma end walls indistinct or absent.

Storied structures. Storied structure absent.

Secretory structures. Oil and mucilage cells absent. Intercellular canals absent. Laticifers or tanniniferous tubes absent.

Cambial variants. Included phloem absent. Other cambial variants absent.

Mineral inclusions. Crystals present, prismatic, located in axial parenchyma cells. Crystal-containing axial parenchyma cells chambered. Number of crystals per cell or chamber one. Crystal containing cells of normal size. Silica not observed.

Illustrations. • Transverse section. Phellodendron amurense. • Tangential section. Phellodendron amurense. • Radial section. Phellodendron amurense. < This is a mounting artefact left for the viewer's enlightenment.

The interactive key allows access to the character list, illustrations, full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting specified attributes, summaries of attributes within groups of taxa, and geographical distribution.

Cite this publication as: ‘Richter, H.G., and Dallwitz, M.J. 2000 onwards. Commercial timbers: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval. In English, French, German, Portuguese, and Spanish. Version: 25th June 2009.’.