Commercial Timbers


H. G. Richter and M. J. Dallwitz

Chukrasia tabularis A.H.L. Jussieu (Surian batu)

Nomenclature etc. MELIACEAE. Syn.: Chickrassia tabularis, Chukrasia velutina. Trade and local names: surian batu, chickrassy, chittagong wood, Burma almondwood (trade); surian batu, cherana puteh, repoh, suntang puteh (MY); yinma, tawyinma, (MM); voryong (KH); nhom, nhom hin, nhom khao (TH). Not protected under CITES regulations.

Tree. Geographic distribution: India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka to Indomalesia.

General. Growth ring boundaries distinct. Heartwood basically brown, without streaks. Sapwood colour distinct from heartwood colour. Odour indistinct or absent. Density 0.6–0.8 g/cm³. With interlocked grain.

Vessels. Wood diffuse-porous. Vessels arranged in no specific pattern, in multiples, commonly short (2–3 vessels) radial rows to radial rows of 4 or more. Average tangential vessel diameter 130–160 µm. Average number of vessels/mm² 13–16. Perforation plates simple. Intervessel pits alternate, average diameter (vertical) 3–4 µm. Vessel-ray pits with distinct borders, similar to intervessel pits. Tyloses in vessels absent. Other deposits in heartwood vessels present (amber and dark brown to black).

Tracheids and fibres. Fibres very thin-walled, or of medium wall thickness. Average fibre length 800–1500 µm. Fibre pits mainly restricted to radial walls, simple to minutely bordered. Fibres non-septate.

Axial parenchyma. Axial parenchyma present, banded. Axial parenchyma bands marginal (or seemingly marginal), fine, up to three cells wide. Axial parenchyma paratracheal. Paratracheal axial parenchyma scanty to vasicentric. Axial parenchyma as strands. Average number of cells per axial parenchyma strand 7–11.

Rays. Rays 5–8 per tangential mm, multiseriate (also if only few), (1–)2–5 cells wide. Rays composed of two or more cell types (heterocellular). Heterocellular rays with square and upright cells restricted to marginal rows, mostly 1 marginal row of upright or square cells or mostly 2–4 marginal rows of upright or square cells. Tile cells absent.

Storied structures. Storied structure absent.

Secretory structures. Intercellular canals occasionally present, traumatic origin, axial type, in short tangential lines.

Cambial variants. Included phloem absent.

Mineral inclusions. Crystals present, prismatic, located in ray cells or axial parenchyma cells. Crystal-containing ray cells upright and/or square, upright and/or square ray cells chambered or not chambered. Crystal-containing axial parenchyma cells chambered. Number of crystals per cell or chamber one. Silica not observed.

Illustrations. • Transverse section. Chukrasia tabularis. • Tangential section. Chukrasia tabularis. Note: ray width can vary widely between specimens. • Radial section. Chukrasia tabularis. • Miscellaneous. Chukrasia tabularis. Note: Minute intervascular pitting (left); crystalliferous parenchyma strands (right).

The interactive key allows access to the character list, illustrations, full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting specified attributes, summaries of attributes within groups of taxa, and geographical distribution.

Cite this publication as: ‘Richter, H.G., and Dallwitz, M.J. 2000 onwards. Commercial timbers: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval. In English, French, German, Portuguese, and Spanish. Version: 25th June 2009.’.