Commercial Timbers

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H. G. Richter and M. J. Dallwitz

Gonystylus spp. (Ramin)

Nomenclature etc. THYMELAEACEAE (GONYSTYLACEAE). G. bancanus (Miq.) Kurz (Syn.: G. miquelianus Teijsm. & Binn., Aquillaria bancana Miq.); G. macrophyllus (Miq.) Airy-Shaw; G. warburgianus Gilg, Gonystylus spp. Trade and local names: ramin (DE, GB, MY, ID); ahmin, kaya garu, melawis, ramin telur (MY); lanutanbagio (PH); garu buaja (ID). Listed in CITES Annex III (Indonesien, 2001 Indonesia, 2001).

Tree. Geographic distribution: Indomalesia.

General. Heartwood basically yellow to white or grey. Sapwood colour similar to heartwood colour. Density 0.55–0.57 g/cm³.

Vessels. Wood diffuse-porous. Vessels in multiples, commonly short (2–3 vessels) radial rows. Average tangential vessel diameter 85–150–200 µm. Average number of vessels/mm² 9–10–14. Perforation plates simple. Intervessel pits alternate, average diameter (vertical) 3–5 µm. Vessel-ray pits with distinct borders, similar to intervessel pits. Helical thickenings absent. Tyloses in vessels absent. Other deposits in heartwood vessels present (few, the colour of amber).

Tracheids and fibres. Fibres of medium wall thickness. Average fibre length 1050–1350–1750 µm. Fibre pits mainly restricted to radial walls, simple to minutely bordered or distinctly bordered. Fibres non-septate.

Axial parenchyma. Axial parenchyma not banded. Axial parenchyma paratracheal. Paratracheal axial parenchyma aliform, or confluent, or unilateral. Aliform parenchyma winged. Axial parenchyma as strands. Average number of cells per axial parenchyma strand 2–4–6.

Rays. Rays 9–14 per tangential mm, exclusively uniseriate. Aggregate rays absent. Rays composed of a single cell type (homocellular); homocellular ray cells procumbent.

Storied structures. Storied structure absent.

Secretory structures. Intercellular canals absent.

Mineral inclusions. Crystals present or not observed, prismatic, located in ray cells. Crystal-containing ray cells procumbent. Number of crystals per cell or chamber one, or more than one. Crystals in one cell or chamber of the same size, or of two distinct sizes. Silica not observed.

Illustrations. • Macro images. Gonystylus bancanus. Transverse. Tangential. • Transverse section. Gonystylus macrophyllus. • Tangential section. Gonystylus bancanus. • Radial section. Gonystylus bancanus. • Miscellaneous. Gonystylus macrophyllus. Large prismatic crystals in rays. Conspicuous fibre pits in radial walls. Gonystylus bancanus.


The interactive key allows access to the character list, illustrations, full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting specified attributes, summaries of attributes within groups of taxa, and geographical distribution.

Cite this publication as: ‘Richter, H.G., and Dallwitz, M.J. 2000 onwards. Commercial timbers: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval. In English, French, German, Portuguese, and Spanish. Version: 25th June 2009. http://delta-intkey.com’.

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