Commercial Timbers


H. G. Richter and M. J. Dallwitz

Copaifera langsdorfii Desf. (Kupa'y)

Nomenclature etc. FABACEAE-CAESALPINIOIDEAE. Trade and local names: kupa'y (PY); copaíba, copaúva, óleo-de-copaíba, pau-do-óleo (BR). Not protected under CITES regulations.

Description based on 2 specimens. Tree. Geographic distribution: southern Brazil and temperate South America.

General. Growth ring boundaries distinct. Growth ring boundaries demarcated by wide (2–5 cells) marginal parenchyma bands. Heartwood basically brown and red, with streaks. Sapwood colour distinct from heartwood colour. Density 0.7 g/cm³.

Vessels. Vessels present. Wood diffuse-porous. Vessels arranged in no specific pattern, in multiples, commonly short (2–3 vessels) radial rows and radial rows of 4 or more. Vessel outline rounded. Two distinct vessel diameter classes absent. Average tangential vessel diameter 70–180 µm; diameter of vessel lumina: medium and large. Average number of vessels/mm² 3–12; vessels per square millimetre very few and few. Average vessel element length 290–550 µm. Average vessel element length short and medium. Perforation plates simple. Intervessel pits alternate, average diameter (vertical) 8–11 µm, medium, vestured. Vessel-ray pits with distinct borders, similar to intervessel pits, of uniform size or type, of the same type in adjacent elements, located throughout the ray. Helical thickenings absent. Tyloses in vessels absent. Other deposits in heartwood vessels present, brown organic contents.

Tracheids and fibres. Vascular or vasicentric tracheids sporadic to absent. Fibres very thin-walled and of medium wall thickness. Average fibre length 1100–1500 µm. Average fibre length medium. Fibre pits mainly restricted to radial walls, simple to minutely bordered. Helical thickenings absent. Fibres non-septate.

Axial parenchyma. Axial parenchyma present, banded. Axial parenchyma bands marginal (or seemingly marginal), fine, up to three cells wide and coarse, more than three cells wide. Axial parenchyma apotracheal and paratracheal. Apotracheal axial parenchyma diffuse. Paratracheal axial parenchyma vasicentric. Axial parenchyma as strands. Average number of cells per axial parenchyma strand 2–5. Unlignified parenchyma absent. Apotracheal parenchyma diffuse, frequently with prismatic crystals; marginal parenchyma bands irregularly spaced.

Rays. Rays present, 3–9 per tangential mm, multiseriate (also if only few), (1–)2–3(–4) cells wide, narrow (2–3 seriate). Rays with multiseriate portions as wide as uniseriate portions absent. Aggregate rays absent. Rays of one size. Height of large rays up to 500 µm and commonly 500 to 1000 µm. Rays composed of a single cell type (homocellular); homocellular ray cells procumbent. Sheath cells absent. Tile cells absent. Perforated ray cells absent. Disjunctive ray parenchyma end walls indistinct or absent. With few heterocellular rays.

Storied structures. Storied structure absent.

Secretory structures. Oil and mucilage cells absent. Intercellular canals present, non-traumatic origin, axial type, in long tangential lines and diffusely arranged. The tangentially arranged intercellular canals are embedded in marginal parenchyma bands. Laticifers or tanniniferous tubes absent.

Cambial variants. Included phloem absent. Other cambial variants absent.

Mineral inclusions. Crystals present, prismatic, located in axial parenchyma cells. Crystal-containing axial parenchyma cells chambered. Number of crystals per cell or chamber one. Crystal containing cells of normal size. Cystoliths absent. Silica not observed.

Illustrations. • Transverse section. Copaifera langsdorfii. Note axial intercellular canals (IC) included in parenchyma band. IC. IC. • Tangential section. Copaifera langsdorfii. • Radial section. Copaifera langsdorfii. Note: Intercellular canal (IC). IC.

The interactive key allows access to the character list, illustrations, full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting specified attributes, summaries of attributes within groups of taxa, and geographical distribution.

Cite this publication as: ‘Richter, H.G., and Dallwitz, M.J. 2000 onwards. Commercial timbers: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval. In English, French, German, Portuguese, and Spanish. Version: 25th June 2009.’.