Commercial Timbers


H. G. Richter and M. J. Dallwitz

Payena acuminata (Blume) Pierre, Payena spp. (Nyatoh)

Nomenclature etc. SAPOTACEAE. + Payena leerii, P. lucida, P. lanceolata, P. maingayi, P. obscura. Trade and local names: nyatoh ( lighter weight species: guttah, mayang (MY); riam (MY-sar); nato (PH); kanzwe (MM); phikun-pa (TH); heavy species: nyatoh batu, bitis (MY). Not protected under CITES regulations.

Tree. Geographic distribution: Indomalesia.

General. If at all distinct, demarcated by lesser number of parenchyma bands. Heartwood basically brown red. Sapwood colour distinct from heartwood colour. Density 0.58–1.07 g/cm³. Density quite variable, timbers therefore attributed to different trade groups, i.e. 'Nyatoh' (light weight) and 'Bitis' (heavy).

Vessels. Vessels present. Wood diffuse-porous. Vessels arranged in diagonal and/or radial pattern, in multiples, commonly short (2–3 vessels) radial rows or radial rows of 4 or more. Average tangential vessel diameter 100–190 µm. Average number of vessels/mm² (4–)6–14(–25). Perforation plates simple. Intervessel pits alternate, average diameter (vertical) 5–7 µm. Vessel-ray pits with reduced borders or apparently simple, rounded or angular or horizontal to vertical, of two distinct sizes or types in the same ray cell, predominantly restricted to marginal rows. Tyloses in vessels present, thinwalled. Other deposits in heartwood vessels present (reddish brown).

Tracheids and fibres. Fibres of medium wall thickness to very thick-walled. Average fibre length 1200–1800 µm. Fibre pits mainly restricted to radial walls, simple to minutely bordered or distinctly bordered.

Axial parenchyma. Axial parenchyma banded. Axial parenchyma bands reticulate, fine, up to three cells wide, 4–8 per radial mm. Parenchyma bands mostly wavy and frequently discontinuous. Axial parenchyma apotracheal. Apotracheal axial parenchyma diffuse, or diffuse-in-aggregates. Axial parenchyma as strands. Average number of cells per axial parenchyma strand 6–9.

Rays. Rays 12–15 per tangential mm, multiseriate (also if only few), 1–2(–3) cells wide. Rays composed of two or more cell types (heterocellular). Heterocellular rays with square and upright cells restricted to marginal rows, mostly 2–4 marginal rows of upright or square cells or with more than 4 marginal rows of upright or square cells.

Mineral inclusions. Crystals not observed. Silica present, as grains, in rays cells.

Illustrations. • Transverse section: P. acuminata. Payena acuminata. • Transverse section: P. obscura. Payena obscura. • Tangential section. Paulownia leerii. • Radial section. Paulownia leerii. • Silica in ray cells. Paulownia leerii.

The interactive key allows access to the character list, illustrations, full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting specified attributes, summaries of attributes within groups of taxa, and geographical distribution.

Cite this publication as: ‘Richter, H.G., and Dallwitz, M.J. 2000 onwards. Commercial timbers: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval. In English, French, German, Portuguese, and Spanish. Version: 25th June 2009.’.