Commercial Timbers


H. G. Richter and M. J. Dallwitz

Cordia goeldiana Huber, C. sagotii I.M. Johnston (Freijó)

Nomenclature etc. BORAGINACEAE. Trade and local names: freijó, frei jorge (BR), cordia wood, jenny wood, Brazilian walnut, South American walnut (US), freijó (DE, GB, NL). Not protected under CITES regulations.

Tree. Geographic distribution: tropical South America.

General. Growth ring boundaries distinct. Heartwood basically brown white or grey to brown, without streaks. Sapwood colour distinct from heartwood colour. Odour indistinct or absent. Density 0.5–0.55 g/cm³.

Vessels. Wood diffuse-porous. Vessels arranged in no specific pattern, in multiples, commonly short (2–3 vessels) radial rows. Average tangential vessel diameter 150–210–340 µm. Average number of vessels/mm² 1–5. Average vessel element length 170–490 µm. Perforation plates simple. Intervessel pits alternate, average diameter (vertical) 4–7 µm. Vessel-ray pits with distinct borders, similar to intervessel pits. Helical thickenings absent. Tyloses in vessels present, thinwalled.

Tracheids and fibres. Fibres very thin-walled, or of medium wall thickness. Average fibre length 630–1400–1960 µm. Fibre pits mainly restricted to radial walls, simple to minutely bordered. Fibres non-septate.

Axial parenchyma. Axial parenchyma banded. Axial parenchyma bands marginal (or seemingly marginal), fine, up to three cells wide. Axial parenchyma paratracheal. Paratracheal axial parenchyma vasicentric. Axial parenchyma as strands. Average number of cells per axial parenchyma strand 2–4.

Rays. Rays 2–5 per tangential mm, multiseriate (also if only few), 3–7 cells wide. Height of large rays commonly over 1000 µm. Rays composed of two or more cell types (heterocellular). Heterocellular rays with square and upright cells restricted to marginal rows, mostly 1 marginal row of upright or square cells. Sheath cells present.

Storied structures. Storied structure absent.

Secretory structures. Intercellular canals absent. Laticifers or tanniniferous tubes absent.

Cambial variants. Included phloem absent.

Mineral inclusions. Crystals present, prismatic and in form of crystal sand, located in ray cells. Crystal-containing ray cells upright and/or square and procumbent. Number of crystals per cell or chamber one. Crystal sand exculsively in outer marginal and sheath cells. Silica not observed.

Illustrations. • Transverse section. Cordia goeldiana. • Tangential section. Cordia goeldiana. • Radial section. Cordia goeldiana. • Crystal sand. Cordia goeldiana. Note: Crsytal sand in ray (this illustration, under semi-polarized light) and axial parenchyma cells.

The interactive key allows access to the character list, illustrations, full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting specified attributes, summaries of attributes within groups of taxa, and geographical distribution.

Cite this publication as: ‘Richter, H.G., and Dallwitz, M.J. 2000 onwards. Commercial timbers: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval. In English, French, German, Portuguese, and Spanish. Version: 25th June 2009.’.