Commercial Timbers


H. G. Richter and M. J. Dallwitz

Neolamarckia cadamba (Roxb.) Bosser (Kadam)

Nomenclature etc. RUBIACEAE (NAUCLEACEAE). Syn.: Anthocephalus cadamba Miq., A. chinensis (Roxb.) Miq., A. indicus A. Rich. Trade and local names: kadam (MY, trade); jabon, kelampai, sugi manai (ID); laran (MY-sab); selimpoh, sempayan (MY-sar); kaatoan bangkal (PH); gao (VN); mau-lettan-she (MM). Not protected under CITES regulations.

Tree. Geographic distribution: India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Burma, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia, and Indomalesia (cultivated worldwide in tropical regions).

General. Heartwood basically yellow white or grey. Sapwood colour similar to heartwood colour. Density (0.29–)0.35–0.55 g/cm³.

Vessels. Wood diffuse-porous. Vessels arranged in no specific pattern, in multiples, commonly short (2–3 vessels) radial rows (-2). Average tangential vessel diameter (90–)120–150(–220) µm. Average number of vessels/mm² 4–11. Perforation plates simple. Intervessel pits alternate, average diameter (vertical) 5–7 µm, vestured. Vessel-ray pits with distinct borders, similar to intervessel pits. Tyloses in vessels present (sparse), thinwalled. Other deposits in heartwood vessels very little present (yellowish).

Tracheids and fibres. Fibres very thin-walled, or of medium wall thickness. Average fibre length (900–)1200–1400–1980 µm. Fibre pits common in both radial and tangential walls, simple to minutely bordered or distinctly bordered. Fibres only A. macrophylla septate and non-septate, or non-septate (A. chinensis). Septate fibres evenly distributed.

Axial parenchyma. Axial parenchyma present, not banded. Axial parenchyma apotracheal and paratracheal. Apotracheal axial parenchyma diffuse-in-aggregates (forming a subtle network between rays). Paratracheal axial parenchyma scanty. Axial parenchyma as strands. Average number of cells per axial parenchyma strand 8–12.

Rays. Rays (5–)7–13 per tangential mm, multiseriate (also if only few), 1–8 cells wide. Rays of two distinct sizes. Rays composed of two or more cell types (heterocellular). Heterocellular rays with square and upright cells restricted to marginal rows, mostly 1 marginal row of upright or square cells or mostly 2–4 marginal rows of upright or square cells. Disjunctive ray parenchyma end walls distinct.

Mineral inclusions. Crystals present, only in some specimens, and very few in form of crystal sand, located in ray cells. Crystal-containing ray cells upright and/or square. Silica not observed.

Illustrations. • Macro images. Neolamarckia cadamba. Transverse. Tangential. • Transverse section. Neolamarckia cadamba. • Tangential section. Neolamarckia cadamba. • Radial section. Neolamarckia cadamba. • Miscellaneous. Neolamarckia cadamba. Micro crystals in square/upright ray cells. Disjunctive endwalls of square/upright ray cells frequent.

The interactive key allows access to the character list, illustrations, full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting specified attributes, summaries of attributes within groups of taxa, and geographical distribution.

Cite this publication as: ‘Richter, H.G., and Dallwitz, M.J. 2000 onwards. Commercial timbers: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval. In English, French, German, Portuguese, and Spanish. Version: 25th June 2009.’.