Commercial Timbers


H. G. Richter and M. J. Dallwitz

Cabralea canjerana Sald. (Cancharana)

Nomenclature etc. MELIACEAE. Syn.: Cabralea oblongifolia C.DC. Trade and local names: cancharana, cedro rã (PY); acayara (AR); canjerana (BR). Not protected under CITES regulations.

Description based on 5 specimens. Tree. Geographic distribution: southern Brazil to temperate South America.

General. Growth ring boundaries indistinct or absent. Heartwood basically brown to red, without streaks. Sapwood colour distinct from heartwood colour. Odour indistinct or absent. Density 0.67–0.7 g/cm³.

Vessels. Vessels present. Wood diffuse-porous. Vessels arranged in no specific pattern, in multiples, commonly short (2–3 vessels) radial rows. Vessel outline rounded. Two distinct vessel diameter classes absent. Few radial multiples of 4–5 vessels present. Average tangential vessel diameter 100–300 µm; diameter of vessel lumina: large to very large. Average number of vessels/mm² 6–12 (up to 25/mm² according to Tortorelli 1956); vessels per square millimetre very few to few. Average vessel element length 300 µm. Average vessel element length short. Perforation plates simple. Intervessel pits alternate, average diameter (vertical) 4–7 µm, small, not vestured. Vessel-ray pits with distinct borders, similar to intervessel pits, of uniform size or type, of the same type in adjacent elements, located throughout the ray. Helical thickenings absent. Tyloses in vessels absent. Other deposits in heartwood vessels present (dark reddish brown organic deposits).

Tracheids and fibres. Vascular or vasicentric tracheids sporadic to absent. Fibres very thin-walled, or of medium wall thickness. Average fibre length 700–900–1100 µm. Average fibre length short to medium. Fibre pits mainly restricted to radial walls, simple to minutely bordered. Helical thickenings absent. Fibres exclusively septate. Septate fibres evenly distributed. Fibres each with 3 to 8 septae, frequently with organic deposits accumulating near septae.

Axial parenchyma. Axial parenchyma banded. Axial parenchyma bands not marginal (or seemingly marginal), bands much wider than rays, coarse, more than three cells wide. Bands often discontinuous and wavy; they can be wide or narrrow and are often in contact with vessels. Axial parenchyma paratracheal. Paratracheal axial parenchyma scanty. Axial parenchyma as strands. Average number of cells per axial parenchyma strand 4–8. Unlignified parenchyma absent.

Rays. Rays 6–11 per tangential mm, multiseriate (also if only few), 1–2(–3) cells wide, narrow (2–3 seriate). Rays with multiseriate portions as wide as uniseriate portions absent. Aggregate rays absent. Rays of one size. Height of large rays up to 500 µm. Rays composed of two or more cell types (heterocellular). Heterocellular rays with square and upright cells restricted to marginal rows, mostly 1 marginal row of upright or square cells to mostly 2–4 marginal rows of upright or square cells (up to two marginal rows). Sheath cells absent. Tile cells absent. Perforated ray cells absent. Disjunctive ray parenchyma end walls indistinct or absent. Predominantly uni and biseriate rays, less common three-seriate rays.

Storied structures. Storied structure absent.

Secretory structures. Oil and mucilage cells absent. Intercellular canals absent. Laticifers or tanniniferous tubes absent.

Cambial variants. Included phloem absent. Other cambial variants absent.

Mineral inclusions. Crystals not observed. Cystoliths absent. Silica not observed.

Physical and chemical tests. Heartwood not fluorescent. Water extract not fluorescent; basically colourless to brown or shade of brown. Ethanol extract not fluorescent. Colour of ethanol extract colourless to brown or shade of brown. Chrome azurol-S test negative. Froth test positive. Splinter burns to charcoal.

Illustrations. • Transverse section. Cabralea canjerana.. • Tangential section. Cabralea canjerana.. • Radial section. Cabralea canjerana..

The interactive key allows access to the character list, illustrations, full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting specified attributes, summaries of attributes within groups of taxa, and geographical distribution.

Cite this publication as: ‘Richter, H.G., and Dallwitz, M.J. 2000 onwards. Commercial timbers: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval. In English, French, German, Portuguese, and Spanish. Version: 25th June 2009.’.