Commercial Timbers


H. G. Richter and M. J. Dallwitz

Brosimum rubescens Taub. (Satiné)

Nomenclature etc. MORACEAE. Syn.: Brosimum paraensis Huber, B. lanciferum Ducke. Trade and local names: muirapiranga, amapá amargoso, a. rana, pau rainha, falso pau brasil (BR) satinwood (GY); satiné, s. rouge, s. rubane, siton paya (GF); satijnhout , doekaliballi (SR); bloodwood, satinwood (GB); ferolia, legno satino (IT); palo de oro (ES). Not protected under CITES regulations.

Tree. Geographic distribution: tropical South America (Guyanas + Amazonas).

General. Growth ring boundaries indistinct or absent. Heartwood basically red, without streaks. Sapwood colour distinct from heartwood colour. Odour indistinct or absent. Density 0.75–1.05 g/cm³.

Vessels. Wood diffuse-porous. Vessels arranged in no specific pattern, in multiples, commonly short (2–3 vessels) radial rows or radial rows of 4 or more. Average tangential vessel diameter 110–210 µm. Average number of vessels/mm² 3–6. Average vessel element length 310–440–630 µm. Perforation plates simple. Intervessel pits alternate, average diameter (vertical) 5–7 µm, not vestured. Vessel-ray pits with distinct borders, similar to intervessel pits. Pits between axial parenchyma and vessels often horizontally extended. Helical thickenings absent. Tyloses in vessels present, thinwalled and sclerotic.

Tracheids and fibres. Vascular or vasicentric tracheids sporadic to absent. Fibres of medium wall thickness to very thick-walled. Average fibre length 850–1250–1570 µm. Fibre pits mainly restricted to radial walls, simple to minutely bordered or distinctly bordered. Helical thickenings absent. Fibres non-septate.

Axial parenchyma. Axial parenchyma not banded. Axial parenchyma paratracheal. Paratracheal axial parenchyma aliform and confluent. Aliform parenchyma winged. Axial parenchyma as strands. Average number of cells per axial parenchyma strand 2–4.

Rays. Rays 4–8 per tangential mm, multiseriate (also if only few), 3–5 cells wide. Rays with multiseriate portions as wide as uniseriate portions absent. Rays composed of two or more cell types (heterocellular). Heterocellular rays with square and upright cells restricted to marginal rows, mostly 1 marginal row of upright or square cells or mostly 2–4 marginal rows of upright or square cells. Sheath cells absent.

Storied structures. Storied structure absent.

Secretory structures. Oil and mucilage cells absent. Intercellular canals absent. Laticifers or tanniniferous tubes present (latex tubes in rays, frequent).

Cambial variants. Included phloem absent. Other cambial variants absent.

Mineral inclusions. Crystals present, prismatic, located in ray cells and axial parenchyma cells (in axial parenchyma very few). Crystal-containing ray cells upright and/or square, upright and/or square ray cells not chambered. Crystals in procumbent ray cells not in radial alignment. Crystal-containing axial parenchyma cells not chambered. Number of crystals per cell or chamber one. Silica not observed.

Physical and chemical tests. Heartwood fluorescent (blue). Water extract fluorescent (brilliant light blue); basically colourless to brown or shade of brown. Ethanol extract fluorescent (blue). Colour of ethanol extract red or shade of red and purple (color of red wine). Froth test positive. Splinter burns to full ash. Ash white to grey.

Illustrations. • Macro images. Transverse. Radial. Brosimum rubescens. • Transverse section. Brosimum rubescens. • Tangential section. Brosimum rubescens. • Radial section. Brosimum rubescens.

The interactive key allows access to the character list, illustrations, full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting specified attributes, summaries of attributes within groups of taxa, and geographical distribution.

Cite this publication as: ‘Richter, H.G., and Dallwitz, M.J. 2000 onwards. Commercial timbers: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval. In English, French, German, Portuguese, and Spanish. Version: 25th June 2009.’.