Commercial Timbers


H. G. Richter and M. J. Dallwitz

Symphonia globulifera L. (Manil)

Nomenclature etc. GUTTIFERAE = CLUSIACEAE. Trade and local names: machare, tomento, azufre (CO); laurel de monte, brea amarilla (BO); zaputi (EC); brea caspi (PE); peramancillo (VE); manúi (GY); ossol (GH); chewstick, barillo (HN); boar wood, hog gum (JM); matakki (SR). Not protected under CITES regulations.

Tree. Geographic distribution: tropical Africa, or Mexico and Central America to tropical South America.

General. Growth ring boundaries distinct or indistinct or absent. Heartwood basically brown and yellow, without streaks. Sapwood colour distinct from heartwood colour (light yellowish to white). Density 0.65–0.75 g/cm³.

Vessels. Wood diffuse-porous. Vessels arranged in no specific pattern, in multiples, commonly short (2–3 vessels) radial rows. Average tangential vessel diameter 150–250(–300) µm. Average number of vessels/mm² 2–5. Perforation plates simple. Intervessel pits alternate, average diameter (vertical) 9–11 µm. Vessel-ray pits with reduced borders or apparently simple, rounded or angular or horizontal to vertical. Helical thickenings absent. Tyloses in vessels present, thinwalled. Other deposits in heartwood vessels not observed.

Tracheids and fibres. Fibres of medium wall thickness to very thick-walled. Average fibre length 1300–2300 µm. Fibre pits mainly restricted to radial walls, simple to minutely bordered. Fibres non-septate.

Axial parenchyma. Axial parenchyma present, banded. Axial parenchyma bands not marginal (or seemingly marginal), fine, up to three cells wide or coarse, more than three cells wide, 3–4 per radial mm. Axial parenchyma paratracheal. Paratracheal axial parenchyma aliform, or confluent. Aliform parenchyma lozenge. Axial parenchyma as strands. Average number of cells per axial parenchyma strand 4.

Rays. Rays 6–10 per tangential mm, multiseriate (also if only few), (1–)2–4 cells wide. Rays of one size. Rays composed of two or more cell types (heterocellular). Heterocellular rays with square and upright cells restricted to marginal rows, mostly 1 marginal row of upright or square cells. Sheath cells absent.

Storied structures. Storied structure absent.

Secretory structures. Intercellular canals absent. Laticifers or tanniniferous tubes absent.

Cambial variants. Included phloem absent.

Mineral inclusions. Crystals present, prismatic, located in rarely ray cells or axial parenchyma cells. Crystal-containing ray cells procumbent. Crystals in procumbent ray cells not in radial alignment. Crystal-containing axial parenchyma cells chambered, or not chambered. Number of crystals per cell or chamber one. Crystal containing cells of normal size, or enlarged (idioblasts). Cystoliths absent. Crystal bearing idioblasts few. Silica not observed.

Illustrations. • Transverse section. Symphonia globulifera. • Tangential section. Symphonia globulifera. • Radial section. Symphonia globulifera.

The interactive key allows access to the character list, illustrations, full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting specified attributes, summaries of attributes within groups of taxa, and geographical distribution.

Cite this publication as: ‘Richter, H.G., and Dallwitz, M.J. 2000 onwards. Commercial timbers: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval. In English, French, German, Portuguese, and Spanish. Version: 25th June 2009.’.