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H. G. Richter and M. J. Dallwitz

Santiria trimera, Santiria spp. (oliv.) Guill. (kedongdong)

Nomenclature etc. BURSERACEAE. Trade and local names: kedongdong, kerantai, upi, seladah (MAL); kenari, kerantai (RI). Not protected under CITES regulations.

Description based on 3. Tree. Geographic distribution: Indomalesia.

General. Growth ring boundaries indistinct or absent. Heartwood basically brown and yellow (heartwood yellowish to greenish to pinkish brown), with streaks. Sapwood colour distinct from heartwood colour. Odour indistinct or absent. Density 0.47–0.67 g/cm³. Wood of commercial potential.

Vessels. Vessels present. Wood diffuse-porous. Vessels arranged in no specific pattern, in multiples, commonly short (2–3 vessels) radial rows. Vessel outline rounded. Two distinct vessel diameter classes absent. Average tangential vessel diameter 62–120–162 µm; diameter of vessel lumina: medium and large. Average number of vessels/mm² 14–16–19; vessels per square millimetre few. Perforation plates simple. Intervessel pits alternate, average diameter (vertical) 8 µm, medium, not vestured. Vessel-ray pits with reduced borders or apparently simple, different from intervessel pits, rounded or angular and horizontal to vertical, of two distinct sizes or types in the same ray cell, of the same type in adjacent elements, located throughout the ray. Helical thickenings absent. Tyloses in vessels present, thinwalled. Other deposits in heartwood vessels not observed.

Tracheids and fibres. Vascular or vasicentric tracheids sporadic to absent. Fibres very thin-walled and of medium wall thickness. Fibre pits mainly restricted to radial walls, simple to minutely bordered. Helical thickenings absent. Fibres exclusively septate.

Axial parenchyma. Axial parenchyma present, not banded. Axial parenchyma paratracheal. Paratracheal axial parenchyma scanty. Axial parenchyma as strands. Average number of cells per axial parenchyma strand 2–4. Axial parenchyma very sparse.

Rays. Rays present, 5–6 per tangential mm, exclusively uniseriate. Aggregate rays absent. Rays of one size. Height of large rays up to 500 µm. Rays composed of two or more cell types (heterocellular). Heterocellular rays with square and upright cells restricted to marginal rows, mostly 1 marginal row of upright or square cells. Tile cells absent. Perforated ray cells absent. Disjunctive ray parenchyma end walls indistinct or absent. Wood rays sometimes with biseriate parts.

Storied structures. Storied structure absent.

Secretory structures. Oil and mucilage cells absent. Intercellular canals present and absent. Laticifers or tanniniferous tubes absent.

Cambial variants. Included phloem absent. Other cambial variants absent.

Mineral inclusions. Crystals present and not observed, prismatic, located in ray cells. Crystal-containing ray cells upright and/or square and procumbent, upright and/or square ray cells not chambered. Crystals in procumbent ray cells not in radial alignment. Crystal containing cells of normal size. Cystoliths absent. Silica present, as grains, in rays cells.

Physical and chemical tests. Heartwood not fluorescent. Water extract not fluorescent; basically colourless to brown or shade of brown. Heartwood extractives not leachable by water. Ethanol extract not fluorescent. Colour of ethanol extract colourless to brown or shade of brown. Chrome azurol-S test negative. Froth test negative. Splinter burns to partial ash. Ash yellow-brown.

Illustrations. • Transverse section. Santiria sp. • Tangential section. Santiria trimera. • Radial section. Santiria trimera. • Silica and crystals in rays. Santiria trimera. Silica particles and prismatic crystals in ray cells, mostly restricted to marginal rows.


The interactive key allows access to the character list, illustrations, full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting specified attributes, summaries of attributes within groups of taxa, and geographical distribution.

Cite this publication as: ‘Richter, H.G., and Dallwitz, M.J. 2000 onwards. Commercial timbers: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval. In English, French, German, Portuguese, and Spanish. Version: 25th June 2009. http://delta-intkey.com’.

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