Commercial Timbers


H. G. Richter and M. J. Dallwitz

Mastixia spp. (kundur)

Nomenclature etc. CORNACEAE. Incl. M. caudatilimba C. Y. Wu, M. crassifolia Merrill, M. korthalsiana Wang, M. pentandra Bl., M. philippinensis Wang, M. rostrata Blume, M. tetrandra C. B. Clarke, M. trichotoma Blume. Trade and local names: bebung, kundur, nyaling (RI); tebu-tebu, tetebu (MAL); apanit (RP). Not protected under CITES regulations.

Geographic distribution: India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Burma, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia, and Indomalesia.

General. Growth ring boundaries indistinct or absent. Heartwood basically white or grey, without streaks. Sapwood colour similar to heartwood colour. Odour indistinct or absent. Density 0.38–0.77 g/cm³. Wood of commercial potential.

Vessels. Vessels present. Wood diffuse-porous. Vessels arranged in no specific pattern, in multiples, commonly in clusters. Vessel outline angular. Two distinct vessel diameter classes absent. Average tangential vessel diameter 50–90–150 µm; diameter of vessel lumina: medium. Average number of vessels/mm² 30–75; vessels per square millimetre moderately numerous and numerous. Perforation plates scalariform, with 20–50 bars. Intervessel pits scalariform and opposite, average diameter (vertical) 4–8 µm, small, not vestured. Vessel-ray pits with reduced borders or apparently simple, similar to intervessel pits, rounded or angular and horizontal to vertical, of two distinct sizes or types in the same ray cell, of the same type in adjacent elements and unilaterally compound and coarse, located throughout the ray. Helical thickenings present and absent (helical thickenings observed in M. korthalsiana, M. pentandra, M. philippinensis), in narrow and wide vessel elements, only in vessel element tails. Tyloses in vessels present and absent, thinwalled. Other deposits in heartwood vessels not observed.

Tracheids and fibres. Vascular or vasicentric tracheids sporadic to absent. Fibres of medium wall thickness. Fibre pits common in both radial and tangential walls, distinctly bordered. Helical thickenings absent. Fibres non-septate.

Axial parenchyma. Axial parenchyma present, not banded. Axial parenchyma apotracheal and paratracheal. Apotracheal axial parenchyma diffuse and diffuse-in-aggregates. Paratracheal axial parenchyma scanty. Axial parenchyma as strands. Average number of cells per axial parenchyma strand 5–9. Unlignified parenchyma absent.

Rays. Rays present, (3–)4–6(–7) per tangential mm, multiseriate (also if only few), (1–)3–6(–8) cells wide, of medium width (3–5 seriate). Rays with multiseriate portions as wide as uniseriate portions absent. Aggregate rays absent. Rays of two distinct sizes. Height of large rays commonly over 1000 µm. Rays composed of two or more cell types (heterocellular). Heterocellular rays with square and upright cells restricted to marginal rows, mostly 2–4 marginal rows of upright or square cells and with more than 4 marginal rows of upright or square cells. Sheath cells present. Tile cells absent. Perforated ray cells absent. Disjunctive ray parenchyma end walls indistinct or absent. Uniseriate rays composed exclusively of upright cells..

Storied structures. Storied structure absent.

Secretory structures. Oil and mucilage cells absent. Intercellular canals present and absent, axial type, in long tangential lines. Intercellular canals observed in M. philippinensis, M. rostrata, M. trichotoma.. Laticifers or tanniniferous tubes absent.

Cambial variants. Included phloem absent. Other cambial variants absent.

Mineral inclusions. Crystals present and not observed (crystals present in: M. korthalsiana, M. pentandra i M. rostrata)), prismatic, located in ray cells. Crystal-containing ray cells procumbent, upright and/or square ray cells chambered and not chambered. Cystoliths absent. Silica not observed.

Physical and chemical tests. Heartwood not fluorescent. Water extract not fluorescent; basically colourless to brown or shade of brown. Heartwood extractives not leachable by water. Ethanol extract not fluorescent. Colour of ethanol extract colourless to brown or shade of brown. Chrome azurol-S test positive. Froth test positive (weakly). Splinter burns to full ash. Ash white to grey.

Illustrations. • Transverse section. Mastixia pentandra. • Tangential section. Mastixia pentandra. • Radial section. Mastixia pentandra. • Miscellaneous. Mastixia pentandra. Scalariform perforation plates and ray-vessel pits (left); prismatic crystals in rays (right).

The interactive key allows access to the character list, illustrations, full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting specified attributes, summaries of attributes within groups of taxa, and geographical distribution.

Cite this publication as: ‘Richter, H.G., and Dallwitz, M.J. 2000 onwards. Commercial timbers: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval. In English, French, German, Portuguese, and Spanish. Version: 25th June 2009.’.