Commercial Timbers


H. G. Richter and M. J. Dallwitz

Schinopsis quebracho-colorado (Schltdl.) F.A.Barkley & T. Mey (Coronillo)

Nomenclature etc. ANACARDIACEAE. Syn.: Schinopsis lorentzii (Griseb.)Engl. Trade and local names: coronillo, quebracho colorado santiagueño, quebracho macho , quebracho bolí(PY); quebracho santiagueño, quebracho colorado santiagueño, paag (AR). Not protected under CITES regulations.

Description based on 3 specimens. Tree. Geographic distribution: tropical South America and southern Brazil.

General. Growth ring boundaries distinct and indistinct or absent. Growth ring boundaries, if distinct, demarcated by a band of thick-walled fibres and slightly thickened (noded) rays. Heartwood basically brown and red, without streaks. Sapwood colour distinct from heartwood colour. Odour indistinct or absent. Density 1.2 g/cm³.

Vessels. Vessels present. Wood diffuse-porous. Vessels arranged in no specific pattern, in multiples, commonly short (2–3 vessels) radial rows. Vessel outline rounded. Two distinct vessel diameter classes absent. Average tangential vessel diameter 40–150–200 µm; diameter of vessel lumina: large. Average number of vessels/mm² 8–35; vessels per square millimetre moderately numerous. Perforation plates simple. Intervessel pits alternate, average diameter (vertical) 7–10 µm, medium, not vestured. Vessel-ray pits with reduced borders or apparently simple, rounded or angular and horizontal to vertical, of two distinct sizes or types in the same ray cell, of the same type in adjacent elements, located throughout the ray. Helical thickenings absent. Tyloses in vessels present, thinwalled and sclerotic. Other deposits in heartwood vessels present, with abundant organic deposits.

Tracheids and fibres. Vascular or vasicentric tracheids sporadic to absent. Fibres of medium wall thickness to very thick-walled. Average fibre length 900 µm. Average fibre length medium. Fibre pits mainly restricted to radial walls, simple to minutely bordered. Helical thickenings absent. Fibres septate and non-septate. Septate fibres scattered near vessels and rays. Fibres with up to 3 septae.

Axial parenchyma. Axial parenchyma present, not banded. Axial parenchyma paratracheal. Paratracheal axial parenchyma scanty, vasicentric, and unilateral. Axial parenchyma as strands. Average number of cells per axial parenchyma strand 2–5. Unlignified parenchyma absent.

Rays. Rays present, 5–8 per tangential mm, multiseriate (also if only few), (1–)2–3(–4) cells wide, narrow (2–3 seriate). Rays with multiseriate portions as wide as uniseriate portions absent. Aggregate rays absent. Rays of one size. Height of large rays up to 500 µm. Rays composed of two or more cell types (heterocellular). Heterocellular rays with square and upright cells restricted to marginal rows, mostly 1 marginal row of upright or square cells. Sheath cells absent. Tile cells absent. Perforated ray cells absent. Disjunctive ray parenchyma end walls indistinct or absent.

Storied structures. Storied structure absent.

Secretory structures. Oil and mucilage cells absent. Intercellular canals present, non-traumatic origin, radial type. According to Tortorelli (1956) occasionally with "schizogeneous resin canals". Laticifers or tanniniferous tubes absent.

Cambial variants. Included phloem absent. Other cambial variants absent.

Mineral inclusions. Crystals present, prismatic, located in ray cells, axial parenchyma cells, and tyloses. Crystal-containing ray cells upright and/or square and procumbent, upright and/or square ray cells not chambered. Crystal-containing axial parenchyma cells not chambered. Number of crystals per cell or chamber one and more than one. Crystals in one cell or chamber of the same size. Crystal containing cells of normal size. Cystoliths absent. Silica not observed.

Physical and chemical tests. Heartwood fluorescent. Water extract not fluorescent; basically colourless to brown or shade of brown. Ethanol extract fluorescent. Colour of ethanol extract colourless to brown or shade of brown. Ethanol extract with yellow fluorescence. Froth test negative. Splinter burns to charcoal (wood crackles (sparks) during combustion).

Illustrations. • Transverse section I. Schinopsis lorentzii. • Transverse section II. Schinopsis sp. • Tangential section. Schinopsis lorentzii. Note radial intercellular canals (RIC). RIC. RIC. RIC. • Radial section. Schinopsis lorentzii. • Miscellaneous. Schinopsis lorentzii. Thick-walled and partly sclerotic tyloses (TY) occasionally including large prismatic crystals (CRT); also note prismatic crystals in marginal ray cells (CRR). CRT. CRT. CRT. CRR. CRR. TY.

The interactive key allows access to the character list, illustrations, full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting specified attributes, summaries of attributes within groups of taxa, and geographical distribution.

Cite this publication as: ‘Richter, H.G., and Dallwitz, M.J. 2000 onwards. Commercial timbers: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval. In English, French, German, Portuguese, and Spanish. Version: 25th June 2009.’.