Nomenclature etc. LECYTHIDACEAE. C. domestica, C. estrellensis, C. legalis (Syn.: C. brasiliensis), C. multiflora, C. pyriformis. Trade and local names: jequitibá, j. branco, j. rosa, cachimbeira, chupa, estopeiro, pau carga (BR); yvir sapucay (PY); yesquero (BO); abarco, chibuga (CO -- C. pyriformis); cachimbo caspi, papelillo caspi, machimango (PE); bacú (VE). Not protected under CITES regulations.
Tree. Geographic distribution: tropical South America to temperate South America.
General. Growth ring boundaries distinct or indistinct or absent. Heartwood basically brown red (light brown to pinkish brown, only in C. pyriformis and C. multiflora dark reddish brown with purple hue), without streaks. Sapwood colour similar to heartwood colour, or distinct from heartwood colour. Density 0.5–0.75 g/cm³.
Vessels. Wood diffuse-porous. Vessels arranged in no specific pattern, in multiples, commonly short (2–3 vessels) radial rows or radial rows of 4 or more. Average tangential vessel diameter 120–160(–200) µm (up to 200 µm only in C. pyriformis). Average number of vessels/mm² 3–10(–22). Perforation plates simple. Intervessel pits alternate, average diameter (vertical) 7–11 µm. Vessel-ray pits with distinct borders, similar to intervessel pits, of uniform size or type. Tyloses in vessels present, thinwalled.
Tracheids and fibres. Fibres of medium wall thickness. Average fibre length 800–1250–1400 µm. Fibre pits mainly restricted to radial walls, simple to minutely bordered. Fibres non-septate.
Axial parenchyma. Axial parenchyma banded. Axial parenchyma bands marginal (or seemingly marginal), reticulate, fine, up to three cells wide, 6–7 per radial mm. Axial parenchyma apotracheal, or paratracheal. Apotracheal axial parenchyma diffuse-in-aggregates (in short wavy lines). Paratracheal axial parenchyma scanty. Axial parenchyma as strands. Average number of cells per axial parenchyma strand 4–8.
Rays. Rays (4–)7–10 per tangential mm, multiseriate (also if only few), 2(–3) cells wide. Rays composed of predominantly le plus souvent a single cell type (homocellular), or two or more cell types (heterocellular); homocellular ray cells procumbent. Heterocellular rays with square and upright cells restricted to marginal rows, mostly 1 marginal row of upright or square cells. Sheath cells absent.
Storied structures. Storied structure absent.
Secretory structures. Intercellular canals absent. Laticifers or tanniniferous tubes absent.
Mineral inclusions. Crystals present, prismatic, located in axial parenchyma cells. Crystal-containing axial parenchyma cells chambered (often in very long chains, in that case with unilaterally thickened cell walls). Number of crystals per cell or chamber one. Silica present, as grains, in rays cells.
Illustrations. • Transverse section. Cariniana decandra. Cariniana excelsa. • Tangential section. Cariniana legalis. • Radial section. Cariniana estrellensis. • Mineral inclusions. Cariniana estrellensis. Note: Crystalliferous parenchyma strands with large (Cl) and small (Cs) compartments and silica (Si) particles in ray cells. Cl. Si. Cs. Si. Si.
The interactive key allows access to the character list, illustrations, full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting specified attributes, summaries of attributes within groups of taxa, and geographical distribution.
Cite this publication as: ‘Richter, H.G., and Dallwitz, M.J. 2000 onwards. Commercial timbers: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval. In English, French, German, Portuguese, and Spanish. Version: 25th June 2009. http://delta-intkey.com’.