Commercial Timbers

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H. G. Richter and M. J. Dallwitz

Sindora spp. (Sepetir)

Nomenclature etc. FABACEAE-CAESALPINIOIDEAE. Sindora bruggemanii, S. coriacea, S. supa, S. velutina. Trade and local names: sepetir, petir, meketil, saputi (MY); sampar hantu (MY-Sar); sindur (ID). Not protected under CITES regulations.

Tree. Geographic distribution: Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia and Indomalesia.

General. Growth ring boundaries distinct. Growth ring limits demarcated by marginal parenchyma bands. Heartwood basically brown and red, with streaks. Sapwood colour distinct from heartwood colour. Odour indistinct or absent. Density (0.45–)0.52–0.79(–0.9) g/cm³.

Vessels. Wood diffuse-porous. Vessels arranged in no specific pattern, in multiples, commonly short (2–3 vessels) radial rows or radial rows of 4 or more. Average tangential vessel diameter 100–170(–220) µm. Average number of vessels/mm² 3–9. Perforation plates simple. Intervessel pits alternate, average diameter (vertical) 6–10 µm, vestured. Vessel-ray pits with distinct borders, similar to intervessel pits. Helical thickenings absent. Other deposits in heartwood vessels present (light to dark brown).

Tracheids and fibres. Fibres of medium wall thickness. Average fibre length 1200–1400 µm. Fibre pits mainly restricted to radial walls, simple to minutely bordered. Fibres exclusively septate and non-septate (septate only in Sindora beccariana). Septate fibres evenly distributed.

Axial parenchyma. Axial parenchyma banded. Axial parenchyma bands marginal (or seemingly marginal), fine, up to three cells wide. Axial parenchyma paratracheal. Paratracheal axial parenchyma vasicentric, aliform, and confluent. Aliform parenchyma lozenge. Axial parenchyma as strands. Average number of cells per axial parenchyma strand 2–3.

Rays. Rays 6–11 per tangential mm, multiseriate (also if only few), 2–3 cells wide. Rays composed of two or more cell types (heterocellular). Heterocellular rays with square and upright cells restricted to marginal rows, mostly 1 marginal row of upright or square cells.

Storied structures. Storied structure absent.

Secretory structures. Intercellular canals present, non-traumatic origin, axial type, in long tangential lines or in short tangential lines. Intercellular axial canals included in marginal parenchyma bands.

Mineral inclusions. Crystals present, prismatic, located in axial parenchyma cells. Crystal-containing axial parenchyma cells chambered. Number of crystals per cell or chamber one. Crytalliferous parenchyma strands mostly isolated among fibres. Silica not observed.

Illustrations. • Transverse section. Sindora leiocarpa. • Tangential section. Sindora leiocarpa. • Radial section. Sindora leiocarpa.


The interactive key allows access to the character list, illustrations, full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting specified attributes, summaries of attributes within groups of taxa, and geographical distribution.

Cite this publication as: ‘Richter, H.G., and Dallwitz, M.J. 2000 onwards. Commercial timbers: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval. In English, French, German, Portuguese, and Spanish. Version: 25th June 2009. http://delta-intkey.com’.

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