Commercial Timbers


H. G. Richter and M. J. Dallwitz

Peronema canescens Jack (Sungkai)

Nomenclature etc. VERBENACEAE. Syn.: Peronema heterophyllum Miq. Trade and local names: sungkai, jati putih, j. sabrang, j. londo, kurus (ID); sukai, cherek (MY). Not protected under CITES regulations.

Tree. Geographic distribution: Indomalesia.

General. Growth ring boundaries distinct. Wood nearly ringporous with conspicuous growth increments. Heartwood basically light brown. Sapwood colour similar to heartwood colour. Density (0.36–)0.52–0.73 g/cm³.

Vessels. Vessels present. Wood ring-porous. Vessels in multiples, commonly short (2–3 vessels) radial rows. Average tangential vessel diameter earlywood 180–260 µm (in latewood 100–170). Perforation plates simple. Intervessel pits alternate, average diameter (vertical) 2–4 µm. Vessel-ray pits with distinct borders, similar to intervessel pits. Tyloses in vessels absent.

Tracheids and fibres. Fibres very thin-walled, or of medium wall thickness. Average fibre length 900–1600 µm. Fibre pits mainly restricted to radial walls, simple to minutely bordered. Fibres non-septate.

Axial parenchyma. Axial parenchyma banded. Axial parenchyma paratracheal. Paratracheal axial parenchyma vasicentric, or aliform, or confluent. Aliform parenchyma lozenge. Axial parenchyma as strands.

Rays. Rays 4–7(–12) per tangential mm, multiseriate (also if only few), 4–10 cells wide. Height of large rays up to 500 µm, or commonly 500 to 1000 µm. Rays composed of two or more cell types (heterocellular). Heterocellular rays with square and upright cells restricted to marginal rows, mostly 1 marginal row of upright or square cells or mostly 2–4 marginal rows of upright or square cells.

Storied structures. Storied structure absent.

Mineral inclusions. Crystals not observed. Silica present, as grains, in rays cells. Silica particles very small and infrequent.

Illustrations. • Transverse section. Peronema canescens. • Tangential section. Peronema canescens. • Radial section. Peronema canescens. • Vitrious silica in vessels. Peronema canescens. Vitrious silica in vessels.

The interactive key allows access to the character list, illustrations, full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting specified attributes, summaries of attributes within groups of taxa, and geographical distribution.

Cite this publication as: ‘Richter, H.G., and Dallwitz, M.J. 2000 onwards. Commercial timbers: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval. In English, French, German, Portuguese, and Spanish. Version: 25th June 2009.’.