Commercial Timbers


H. G. Richter and M. J. Dallwitz

Qualea spp. (Cêdre gris, mandioqueira, quaruba rana)

Nomenclature etc. VOCHYSIACEAE. Q. dinisii, Q. paraensis, Q. parviflora, Q. rosea. Trade and local names: mandioqueira (BR), florecillo (sAm). Not protected under CITES regulations.

Description based on 11 specimens. Tree. Geographic distribution: Mexico and Central America and tropical South America.

General. Heartwood basically brown red (pinkish brown to reddish brown). Sapwood colour similar to heartwood colour, or distinct from heartwood colour. Density 0.5–0.75 g/cm³.

Vessels. Wood diffuse-porous. Vessels in multiples, commonly short (2–3 vessels) radial rows. Average tangential vessel diameter 151–283 µm. Average number of vessels/mm² 4–12. Average vessel element length 350–510 µm. Perforation plates simple. Intervessel pits alternate, average diameter (vertical) 5–8 µm, vestured. Vessel-ray pits with distinct borders, similar to intervessel pits. Helical thickenings absent. Tyloses in vessels absent. Other deposits in heartwood vessels not observed.

Tracheids and fibres. Fibres of medium wall thickness. Average fibre length 1170–1500 µm. Fibre pits mainly restricted to radial walls, simple to minutely bordered. Fibres septate and non-septate.

Axial parenchyma. Axial parenchyma banded. Axial parenchyma bands not marginal (or seemingly marginal). Axial parenchyma paratracheal. Paratracheal axial parenchyma vasicentric, or aliform. Aliform parenchyma lozenge. Axial parenchyma as strands. Average number of cells per axial parenchyma strand 3–8.

Rays. Rays 5–8 per tangential mm, multiseriate (also if only few), 3–6 cells wide. Height of large rays commonly over 1000 µm. Rays composed of a single cell type (homocellular), or two or more cell types (heterocellular); homocellular ray cells procumbent. Heterocellular rays with square and upright cells restricted to marginal rows, mostly 1 marginal row of upright or square cells.

Storied structures. Storied structure absent.

Secretory structures. Intercellular canals present, traumatic origin, axial type.

Mineral inclusions. Crystals present, prismatic, located in axial parenchyma cells. Crystal-containing axial parenchyma cells chambered. Number of crystals per cell or chamber one. Silica present or not observed, as grains, in rays cells.

Physical and chemical tests. Heartwood not fluorescent. Water extract not fluorescent; basically yellow or shade of yellow. Ethanol extract not fluorescent. Colour of ethanol extract colourless to brown or shade of brown. Chrome azurol-S test positive.

Illustrations. • Transverse section. Qualea rosea. • Tangential section. Qualea rosea. • Radial section. Qualea rosea.

The interactive key allows access to the character list, illustrations, full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting specified attributes, summaries of attributes within groups of taxa, and geographical distribution.

Cite this publication as: ‘Richter, H.G., and Dallwitz, M.J. 2000 onwards. Commercial timbers: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval. In English, French, German, Portuguese, and Spanish. Version: 25th June 2009.’.