The families of gymnosperms

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L. Watson and M. J. Dallwitz


The key and descriptions were generated from a DELTA database (Dallwitz 1980; Dallwitz, Paine, and Zurcher 1993).


Interactive key, including interactive information retrieval • Hints on using the interactive key

The interactive key allows free choice of characters, is easy to use, and can lead to correct identifications in spite of occasional errors. It can display all the illustrations, full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting or lacking specified attributes, and distributions of character states within any set of taxa.

Character list • Implicit attributes

Poems on gymnosperms by Giles Watson

References • Citation • Contacts, conditions of use, contributions


These descriptions are offered for casual browsing only. We strongly advise against extracting comparative information from them. This is much more easily achieved using the interactive key.

The bold parts in the descriptions are diagnostic descriptions, generated with the aid of Intkey (Dallwitz, Paine, and Zurcher 1995). They distinguish each taxon in at least one respect from the other taxa.

• Araucariaceae • Cephalotaxaceae • Cupressaceae • Cycadaceae • Ephedraceae • Ginkgoaceae • Gnetaceae • Pinaceae • Podocarpaceae • Sciadopityaceae • Stangeriaceae • Taxaceae • Taxodiaceae • Welwitschiaceae • Zamiaceae • Ancient Conifers and Taxads • Ancient Cycads

Cite this publication as: ‘Watson, L., and Dallwitz, M.J. 2008 onwards. The families of gymnosperms. Version: 9th April 2015.’.

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