The families of gymnosperms

DELTA home

L. Watson and M. J. Dallwitz


|A: Source of wood-anatomical data

|I: Source of illustrations for the database

|M: Sources of descriptive morphological and/or phytogeographic data

|R: Relevant background

|S: Software

Airy Shaw, H.K. 1973. J.C. Willis’s A dictionary of the flowering plants and ferns (8th edition). Cambridge University Press. |M

Chamberlain, C.J. 1935. Gymnosperms: structure and evolution. University of Chicago Press. Chicago and Illinois. |I |M

Chittenden, F.J. 1951. Dictionary of gardening, 4 vols. (Royal Horticultural Society.) Clarendon, Oxford. |I |M

Clifford, H.T., and Constantine, J. 1980. Ferns, fern allies and conifers of Australia. University of Queensland Press. |M

Dallimore, W., and Jackson, A.B. 1948. A handbook of the Coniferae. Edward Arnold & Co., London. |I |M

Dallwitz, M.J. 1980. A general system for coding taxonomic descriptions. Taxon 29: 41–6. Also available at |S

Dallwitz, M.J., Paine, T.A., and Zurcher, E.J. 1993 onwards. User’s guide to the DELTA system: a general system for processing taxonomic descriptions. 4th edition. |S

Dallwitz, M.J., Paine, T.A., and Zurcher, E.J. 1995 onwards. User’s guide to Intkey: a program for interactive identification and information retrieval. |S

Dallwitz, M.J., Paine, T.A. and Zurcher, E.J. 2000 onwards. Principles of interactive keys. |R|S

Earle, C.J. 2007. The gymnosperm database. |M

Edlin, H.L. 1970. Know your conifers. Forestry Commission, Booklet No. 15. H.M. Stationery Office,

London. |M

Florin, R. 1931. Untersuchungen zur Stammesgeschichte der Coniferales und Cordaitales. Erster Teil. p. 1–588. Almquist & Wicksells, Stockholm.

Florin, R. 1951. Evolution in Cordaites and Conifers. Acta Horti Bergiani 15: 1–388.

Goebel, K. 1887. Outlines of the classification and special morphology of plants. English translation, revised by I.B. Balfour. Clarendon, Oxford. |I |M

Goebel, K. 1905. Organography of plants. Authorized English edition by I.B. Balfour. Clarendon, Oxford. |I|M

Heiss, A.G. (2006). Anatomy of European and North American woods – an interactive identification key. |A

Leathart, S. 1977. Trees of the world. A & W Publishers, Inc., New York.

Le Maout, E. and Decaisne, J. 1873. A general system of botany, descriptive and analytical (English translation by Mrs Hooker, with additional material by J.D. Hooker. Illustrations by L. Steinheil and A. Riocreux). Longmans, Green and Co., London. |I |M

Lindley, J. 1853. The vegetable kingdom: the structure, classification and uses of plants (third edition). Bradbury and Evans, London. |I |M

Phillips, E.W.J. 1948. Identification of Softwoods. Forest Products Research Bulletin 22. H.M. Stationery Office, London. |A

Sporne, K.R. 1965. The morphology of gymnosperms. Hutchinson, London. |M

Vidakovic, M. 1991. Conifers: morphology and variation. Translated from Croatian by Maja Soljan. Graficki Zavod Hrvatske, Croatia. |M

Watson, L., and Dallwitz, M.J. 1992 onwards. The families of flowering plants: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval. |R