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Anastrepha and Toxotrypana:
descriptions, illustrations, and interactive keys

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Allen L. Norrbom, Cheslavo A. Korytkowski, Roberto A. Zucchi, Keiko Uramoto, George L. Venable, Jerrett McCormick and Michael J. Dallwitz

Generic diagnoses: is it Anastrepha / Toxotrypana?

Before starting the identification keys, users should make certain that their specimens to be identified are Anastrepha or Toxotrypana. Species of these two genera form the largest clade of fruit flies (Tephritidae) occurring in the Neotropical Region, but evidence for their relationship is mainly based on characters of the male and female terminalia that normally require dissection to be seen.

Most species of Anastrepha can be easily distinguished from other Tephritidae by the strongly anteriorly curved apex of vein M, which in most species meets the costa without a distinct angle. In a few species, the curvature of M is not as strong and there is a slight angle at the costa, although the distal half of the last section of M is always curved anteriorly. In most species of Anastrepha the wing has a characteristic pattern including C-, S-, and V-bands, although some species have parts of these bands reduced or fused, and others have a wasp mimic pattern, with only a complete costal band and a streak in the cubital cells. Additional useful diagnostic characters for Anastrepha include: Ocellar seta short and weak (except in A. tripunctata Wulp and A. maya Hernández-Ortiz); dorsocentral seta much closer to level of postalar seta than to level of postsutural supra-alar seta; lateral surstylus short (less than height of epandrium), usually flattened, without anterior or posterior lobes; glans with basal membranous lobe with minute spicules (except in spp. of the dentata and daciformis groups, which lack the glans); oviscape tube-shaped, often elongate, basally with flangelike lateral lobe; eversible membrane enlarged basally, this area dorsally with enlarged, hooklike scales; aculeus long and slender, well sclerotized; 3 spermathecae.

Anastrepha wing

Species of Toxotrypana are wasplike in appearance. The body is elongate, yellow with dark brown markings or predominantly brown, and the wing pattern includes only a broad costal band extending the length of the wing and a faint streak on the cubital cells. Toxotrypana species can be easily distinguished from other Tephritidae by the following characters: scutum with a medial, longitudinal depression; vein R2+3 with 3 sharp bends, often with spur veins arising at the bends; most head and thoracic setae (including ocellar, frontal, orbital, postpronotal, presutural supra-alar, acrostichal, dorsocentral, intra-alar, anepisternal, katepisternal, and basal scutellar setae) reduced in size or absent; male wing usually with costal setulae stout; abdomen elongate and petiolate, the first segment (syntergite 1+2) narrowed medially.

Toxotrypana habitus

Toxotrypana wing

Additional useful diagnostic characters include: dorsocentral seta much closer to level of postalar seta than to level of postsutural supra-alar seta; lateral surstylus short; glans with basal membranous lobe with minute spicules; oviscape tube-shaped, elongate (at least as long as abdomen), basally with flangelike lateral lobe; eversible membrane enlarged basally, this area dorsally with enlarged, hooklike scales; aculeus long and slender, well sclerotized; 3 spermathecae.