Commercial Timbers


H. G. Richter and M. J. Dallwitz

IAWA References

(IAWA Committee. 1989. IAWA list of microscopic features for hardwood identification. IAWA Bull. n.s. 10(3): 221–332.)

Amos, G. L. 1952. Silica in timbers. CSIRO Australia, Bull. No. 267.

Anonymous. 1960. Identification of hardwoods. A lens key. For. Prod. Res. Bull. No. 25, London.

Avella, T., Dechamps, R., and Bastin, M. 1988. Fluorescence study of 10,610 woody species from the Tervuren (Tw) collection, Belgium. IAWA Bull. n.s. 9: 346–352.

Baas, P. 1973. The wood anatomical range in Ilex and its phylogenetic and systematic significance. Blumea 21: 193–258.

Baas, P. 1986. Terminology of imperforate tracheary elements — in defence of libriform fibres with minutely bordered pits. IAWA Bull. n.s. 7: 82–86.

Baas, P., Esser, P.M., Westen, M.E.T. van der, and Zandee, M. 1988. Wood anatomy of the Oleaceae. IAWA Bull. n.s. 9: 103–182.

Baas, P. and Gregory, M. 1985. A survey of oil cells in the dicotyledons with comments on their replacement by and joint occurrence with mucilage cells. Israel J. of Bot. 34: 167–186.

Baas, P. and Schweingruber, F.H. 1987. Ecological trends in the wood anatomy of trees, shrubs and climbers from Europe. IAWA. Bull. n.s. 8: 245–274.

Bailey, I.W. 1933. The cambium and its derivative tissues. VIII. Structure, distribution and diagnostic significance of vestured pits in dicotyledons. J. Arnold Arbor. 14: 259–273.

Bailey, I.W. 1936. The problem of differentiation and classification of tracheids, fiber-tracheids, and libriform fibers. Trop. Woods 45: 18–23.

Brazier, J. and Franklin, G.L. 1961. Identification of hardwoods: a microscope key. For, Prod. Res. Bull. 46. HMSO, London.

Bridgwater, S. and Baas, P. 1982. Wood anatomy of Xanthophyllum Roxb. IAWA Bull. n.s. 3: 115–125.

Carlquist, S. 1980. Further concepts in ecological wood anatomy, with comments on recent work in wood anatomy. Aliso 9: 499–553.

Carlquist, S. 1985. Vasicentric tracheids as a drought survival mechanism in the woody flora of southern California and similar regions; review of vasicentric tracheids. Aliso 11: 37–68.

Carlquist, S. 1986a. Terminology of imperforate tracheary elements. IAWA Bull. n.s. 7: 75–81.

Carlquist, S. 1986b. Ibid.: A reply. IAWA Bull. n.s. 7: 168–170.

Carlquist, S. 1988. Comparative wood anatomy. Systematic, ecological, and evolutionary aspects of dicotyledon wood. Springer Verlag, Heidelberg, Berlin.

Cassens, D.L., and Miller, R.B. 1981. Wood anatomy of the New World Pithecellobium (sensu lato). J. Arnold Arbor. 62: 1–44.

Chattaway, M.M. 1932. Proposed standards for numerical values used in describing woods. Trop. Woods. 29: 20–28.

Chattaway, M.M. 1955. Crystals in woody tissues I. Trop. Woods 102: 55–74.

Chattaway, M.M. 1956. Crystals in woody tissues II. Trop. Woods 104: 100–124.

Clarke, S.H. 1938. A multiple-entry perforated-card key with special reference to the identification of hardwoods. New Phytologist 37: 369–374.

Cronquist, A. 1981. An integrated system of classification of flowering plants. Columbia Univ. Press, New York.

Cronquist, A. 1988. The evolution and classification of flowering plants. 2nd Ed. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York.

Dadswell, H.E. and Burnell, M. 1932. Method for the identification of coloured woods of the genus Eucalyptus. CSIR Div. For. Prod., Technical Paper No. 5.

Dodd, R.S. 1986. Fiber length measurement systems: A review and modification of an existing method. Wood and Fiber Sci. 18: 276–287.

Dyer, S.T. 1988. Wood fluorescence of indigenous South African trees. IAWA Bull. n.s. 9: 75–87.

Fahn, A., Werker, E., and Baas, P. 1986. Wood anatomy and identification of trees and shrubs from Israel and adjacent regions. Israel Acad. Sci. Humanities, Jerusalem.

Fujii, T. 1988. Structure of latex and tanniniferous tubes in tropical hardwoods. Bull. For. Prod. Res. Inst. No. 352: 113–118 (+ 14 plates; Japanese with English summary).

Gottwald, H. 1983. Wood anatomical studies of Boraginaceae (s.l.). 1. Cordioidae. IAWA Bull. n.s. 4: 161–178.

Gregory, M. and Baas, P. 1989. A survey of mucilage cells in vegetative organs of the Dicotyledons. Israel J. of Bot. 38: 125–174.

Hart, C.A. and Swindel, B. 1967. Notes on laboratory sampling of macerated wood fibers. TAPPI 50 (7): 379–381.

Hillis, H. E. 1987. Heartwood and tree exudates. Springer Verlag, Heidelberg, Berlin, London, Paris.

IAWA Committee. 1964. Multilingual glossary of terms used in wood anatomy. Konkordia, Winterthur.

IAWA Committee. 1981. Standard list of characters suitable for computerized hardwood identification. IAWA Bull. n.s. 2: 99–110.

Ilic, Y. 1987. The CSIRO family card sorting key for hardwood identification. CSIRO Division of Chemical and Wood Technology. Technical Paper No. 8.

Koeppen, R.C. 1980. Silica bodies in wood of arborescent Leguminosae. IAWA Bull. n.s. 1: 180–184.

Kribs, D.A. 1968. Commercial foreign woods on the American Market. Dover Publications, New York.

Kukachka, B.F. and Miller, R.B. 1980. A chemical spot-test for aluminum and its value in wood identification. IAWA Bull. n.s. 1: 104–109.

Mabberley, D.J. 1987. The plant-book, a portable dictionary of the higher plants. Cambridge Univ. Press.

Mann, J. 1921. Australian timbers, their strength, durability and identification. 2nd Ed., Walker, May and Co. Melbourne.

Mennega, A. M. W. 1948. Suriname timbers 1. General Introduction, Guttiferae, Vochysiaceae, Anacardiaceae and Icacinaceae. Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague.

Metcalfe, C.R. and Chalk L. 1950. Anatomy of the dicotyledons. Vol. I. Clarendon Press, Oxford.

Mikesell, L.E. and Popham, R.H. 1976. Ontogeny and correlative relationship of the primary thickening meristem in four-o’clock plants (Nyctaginaceae) maintained under long and short photoperiods. Amer. J. Bot. 66: 997–1005.

Miller, R. B. 1981. Explanation of the coding procedure. IAWA Bull. n.s. 2: 111–145.

Ohtani, L, Meylan, B.A., and Butterfield, B.G. 1984. Vestures or warts — Proposed terminology. IAWA Bull. n.s. 5: 3–8.

Panshin, A.J., and DeZeeuw, C. 1980. Textbook of wood technology. 4th Ed. McGraw-Hill, New York.

Parameswaran, N. and Liese, W. 1969. On the formation and fine structure of septate wood fibres of Ribes sanguineum. Wood Sci. Technol. 3: 272–286.

Parameswaran, N. and Richter, H.G. 1984. The ultrastructure of crystalliferous cells in some Lecythidaceae with a discussion of their terminology. IAWA Bull. n.s. 5: 229–236.

Quirk, L.T. 1983. Data for a computer-assisted wood identification system. 1. Commercial legumes of tropical Asia and Australia. IAWA Bull. n.s. 4: 118–130.

Record, S.J. 1944. Keys to American woods (continued). Trop. Woods 77: 18–38.

Richter, H.G. 1977. Differential staining of oil and mucilage in idioblasts of Lauraceae. IAWA 1977/4: 76.

Richter, H.G. 1980. Occurrence, morphology and taxonomic implications of crystalline and siliceous inclusions in the secondary xylem of the Lauraceae and related families. Wood Sci. Technol. 14: 35–44.

Sudo, S. 1959. Identification of Japanese woods. Bull. Govt. For. Exp. Station No. 118. Tokyo, Japan.

Swain, E.H.F. 1927. Universal index to wood. Dept. of Public Lands. Queensland For. Bull. No. 7.

Takhtajan, A. 1980. Outline of the classification of the flowering plants (Magnoliophyta). Bot. Rev. 46: 226–359.

Takhtajan, A. 1987. Systema Magnoliophytorum. In Russian. Officina editoria ‘Nauka’, Leningrad.

Thorne, R.F. 1976. A phylogenetic classification of the Angiospermae. Evolutionary Biol. 9: 35–106.

Topper, S.M.C. and Koek-Noorman, J. 1980. The occurrence of axial latex tubes in the secondary xylem of some species of Artocarpus J.R. and G. Forster (Moraceae). IAWA Bull, n.s. 1: 113–119.

Vidal Gomes, A., Lopes Teixeira, L., Gomes Schaitza, E., and Hofmeister, R.M. 1989. Perforation plates in vessels of Citharexylum myrianthum Cham. (Verbenaceae). IAWA Bull. n.s. 10: 27–34.

Vliet, G.J.C.M. van. 1976a. Radial vessels in rays. IAWA Bull. 1976/3: 35–37.

Vliet, G.J.C.M. van. 1976b. Wood anatomy of Rhizophoraceae. In: P. Baas, J. Bolton, and D. M. Catling (eds.), Wood structure in biological and technological research: 20–75. Leiden Bot. Series 3. Leiden Univ. Press.

Vliet, G.J.C.M. van. 1978. The vestured pits of Combretaceae and allied families. Acta Bot. Neerl. 27: 273–285.

Vliet, G.J.C.M. van. 1981. Wood anatomy of the palaeotropical Melastomataccae. Blumea 27: 395–462.

Vliet, G.J.C.M. van, and Baas, P. 1984. Wood anatomy and classification of the Myrtales. Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard. 71: 783–800.

Weber, W.A. 1982. Mnemonic three-letter acronyms for the families of vascular plants: a device for more effective herbarium curation. Taxon 31: 74–88.

Welch, M.B. 1922. A method of identification of some hardwoods. J. Roy. Soc. New South Wales 56: 241–248.

Welle, B.J.H. ter. 1976. Silica grains in woody plants of the neotropics, especially Surinam. In: P. Baas, J. Bolton, and D.M. Catling (eds.), Wood structure in biological and technological research: 107–142. Leiden Bot. Series 3. Leiden Univ. Press.

Welle, B.J.H. ter. 1980. Cystoliths in the secondary xylem of Sparattanthelium (Hernandiaceae). IAWA Bull. n.s. 1: 43–48.

Wheeler, E.A. 1986. Vessels per square millimetre or vessel groups per square millimetre? IAWA Bull. n.s. 7: 73–74.

Wheeler, E.A., Pearson, R.G., LaPasha, C.A., Zack, T., and Hatley, W. 1986. Computer-aided wood identification. Reference manual. N.C. Ag. Res. Serv. Bull. 474.

Willis, J.C. 1973. A dictionary of the flowering plants and ferns. 8th Ed., revised by H. K. Airy Shaw. Cambridge Univ. Press.