Commercial Timbers

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H. G. Richter and M. J. Dallwitz

Prunus sp. (Yvaro)

Nomenclature etc. ROSACEAE. Trade and local names: yvaro (PY). Not protected under CITES regulations.

Description based on 1 specimen. Tree. Geographic distribution: southern Brazil.

General. Growth ring boundaries distinct. Growth ring boundaries demarcated by 2–4-seriate marginal parenchyma bands, fibres with somewhat thicker walls, and slightly thickened (noded) rays.

Vessels. Vessels present. Wood diffuse-porous. Vessels arranged in diagonal and/or radial pattern and no specific pattern, in multiples, commonly short (2–3 vessels) radial rows and radial rows of 4 or more. Vessel outline rounded. Two distinct vessel diameter classes absent. Perforation plates simple. Intervessel pits alternate, average diameter (vertical) 6–8 µm, medium, not vestured. Vessel-ray pits with distinct borders, similar to intervessel pits, of uniform size or type, of the same type in adjacent elements, located throughout the ray. Helical thickenings present, in narrow and wide vessel elements, throughout the body of vessel elements. Tyloses in vessels absent. Other deposits in heartwood vessels present, brown organic deposits.

Tracheids and fibres. Vascular or vasicentric tracheids commonly present. Fibres of medium wall thickness. Fibre pits mainly restricted to radial walls, simple to minutely bordered. Helical thickenings absent. Fibres non-septate. Helical thickenings in tracheids.

Axial parenchyma. Axial parenchyma present, banded. Axial parenchyma bands marginal (or seemingly marginal). Axial parenchyma apotracheal and paratracheal. Apotracheal axial parenchyma diffuse and diffuse-in-aggregates. Paratracheal axial parenchyma scanty. Axial parenchyma as strands. Unlignified parenchyma absent.

Rays. Rays present, multiseriate (also if only few), (1–)3–5(–6) cells wide, of medium width (3–5 seriate). Rays with multiseriate portions as wide as uniseriate portions absent. Aggregate rays absent. Rays of two distinct sizes. Height of large rays commonly over 1000 µm. Rays composed of two or more cell types (heterocellular). Heterocellular rays with square and upright cells restricted to marginal rows, mostly 1 marginal row of upright or square cells, mostly 2–4 marginal rows of upright or square cells, and with more than 4 marginal rows of upright or square cells. Sheath cells absent. Tile cells absent. Perforated ray cells absent. Disjunctive ray parenchyma end walls indistinct or absent. 4-seriate rays rare.

Storied structures. Storied structure absent.

Secretory structures. Oil and mucilage cells absent. Intercellular canals present, traumatic origin, axial type, in short tangential lines and diffusely arranged. Laticifers or tanniniferous tubes absent.

Cambial variants. Included phloem absent. Other cambial variants absent.

Mineral inclusions. Crystals present, druses, located in ray cells and axial parenchyma cells. Crystal-containing ray cells procumbent. Crystals in procumbent ray cells not in radial alignment. Crystal-containing axial parenchyma cells chambered. Number of crystals per cell or chamber one. Crystal containing cells of normal size. Cystoliths absent. Silica not observed.

Illustrations. • Transverse section. Prunus subcoriacea. • Tangential section. Prunus sellowii. • Radial section. Prunus subcoriacea. • Spiral thickenings. Prunus sellowii. Spiral thickenings in vessels.


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Cite this publication as: ‘Richter, H.G., and Dallwitz, M.J. 2000 onwards. Commercial timbers: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval. In English, French, German, Portuguese, and Spanish. Version: 25th June 2009. http://delta-intkey.com’.

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