Solanum species of eastern and northern Australia

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A. R. Bean

Solanum sisymbriifolium

Habit. Erect, rhizomatous perennial shrub, 0.8–1.5 m high.

Branchlets. Branchlets brown or green. Branchlet prickles 30–60 per decimetre, straight, broad-based or curved, broad-based, 1–12 mm long, 5–7 times longer than wide, glabrous. Branchlet hairs simple or stellate. Branchlet stellae dense, 0.3–0.5 mm diameter, stalks 0 mm long. Branchlet stellae lateral rays 6–12, ascending or multiradiate. Branchlet stellae central ray 1.5–3 times as long as laterals, not gland-tipped or gland-tipped. Branchlet simple hairs erect, straight, gland-tipped, 0.2–0.4 mm long.

Leaves. Leaves ovate or broadly ovate, deeply lobed throughout. Leaf lobes 4–6 on each side, acute, lobing index 2.5–11. Leaves 8–12 cm long, 5.5–8.5 cm wide, 1.4–1.8 times longer than broad. Leaf apex acute, base obtuse or cordate. Leaf oblique part 0–5 mm long, obliqueness index 0–5 percent. Petioles 2.1–4.6 cm long, 21–40% length of lamina, winged, prickles present.

Upper leaf surface. Upper leaf surface green. Upper leaf surface prickles present on midvein and lateral veins, 9–30, straight, broad-based, 1–10 mm long. Upper leaf surface stellate hairs distributed throughout, hair density sparse to moderate density. Upper leaf surface stellae 0.3–0.5 mm apart, 0.3–0.5 mm across, stalks 0 mm long. Upper leaf surface stellae lateral rays 4–6, ascending. Upper leaf surface stellae central ray 1–3 times as long as laterals, not gland-tipped. Upper leaf surface simple hairs erect, straight, sparse, gland-tipped, 0.2–0.3 mm long. Upper leaf surface Type 2 hairs absent.

Lower leaf surface. Lower leaf surface green. Lower leaf surface prickles present on midvein and lateral veins, 7–20, straight, broad-based. Lower leaf surface stellate hair density moderate. Lower leaf surface stellae 0.3–0.6 mm apart, 0.4–0.6 mm diameter, stalks 0 mm long. Lower leaf surface stellae lateral rays 4–7, ascending. Lower leaf surface stellae central ray 1–2 times as long as laterals, not gland-tipped. Lower leaf surface simple hairs erect, straight, sparse or moderate to dense, gland-tipped, 0.2–0.3 mm long. Lower leaf surface Type 2 hairs absent.

Inflorescence. Inflorescence supra-axillary, cymose (pseudo-racemose). Inflorescence common peduncle 15–52 mm long. Inflorescence rachis prickles present. Inflorescence 4–11-flowered, with some bisexual and some male flowers. Flowers 5-merous, all similar. Pedicels at anthesis 5–12 mm long, same thickness throughout, 0.5–0.7 mm thick at mid-point, prickles present. Calyx tube at anthesis 1.5–3 mm long. Calyx lobes at anthesis deltate, 5–6.5 mm long. Calyx prickles at anthesis present, 25–90 per flower, 1–7 mm long. Calyx stellae dense, transparent, 0.4–0.6 mm across, stalks 0 mm long, lateral rays 6–10. Calyx stellae central ray 2–3 times as long as laterals, not gland-tipped or gland-tipped. Calyx simple hairs present, Type 2 hairs absent. Corolla white, 11–16 mm long, rotate or shallowly lobed, inner surface glabrous. Anthers 8–10 mm long. Ovary with Type 2 hairs only. Functional style 15.5–17 mm long, protruding between anthers, with Type 2 hairs only or with stellate and Type 2 hairs. Functional style stellae c. 0.25 mm across, lateral rays c. 6, central ray 2–3 times as long as laterals.

Fruits. Fruiting calyx lobes more than half length of mature fruit, prickles 2–10 mm long. Mature fruits 1–3 per inflorescence, globular, 15–20 mm diameter, red. Mature fruits interior juicy, succulent (symon). Pedicels at fruiting stage 17–25 mm long, 1.1–1.9 mm thick at mid-point. Seeds pale yellow, 2.9–3.2 mm long.

Distribution and habitat. Queensland, New South Wales, Western Australia. Qld: Darling Downs. NSW: Central Coast. Shrubby eucalypt woodland, remote from rainforest.

Miscellaneous. Naturalised. Subg. Leptostemonum. Data source: specimens.

Illustrations. • ripe fruit. • calyx enclosing immature fruit. • flowers and leaves.


Cite this publication as: ‘Bean, A.R. 2012 onwards. Solanum species of eastern and northern Australia. Version: 29th June 2013. http://delta-intkey.com’.

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