Solanum species of eastern and northern Australia

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A. R. Bean

Solanum chenopodinum

Habit. Erect, rhizomatous perennial shrub, 0.4–1 m high. Large stems prickles present.

Branchlets. Branchlets white or grey or yellow. Branchlet prickles absent or present, 0–10 per decimetre, straight, broad-based or curved, broad-based, 2–7 mm long, 4–7 times longer than wide, with scattered stellate hairs on lower half. Branchlet hairs stellate. Branchlet stellae very dense, 0.2–0.5 mm diameter, stalks 0–0.2 mm long. Branchlet stellae lateral rays 7–10, porrect or ascending. Branchlet stellae central ray 0.2–1 times as long as laterals, not gland-tipped, thready or rigid. Branchlet simple hairs absent.

Leaves. Leaves ovate or triangular, with basal lobes only. Leaf lobes 1 on each side, obtuse. Leaves 2.5–6.5 cm long, 1.1–2.6 cm wide, 1.4–3 times longer than broad. Leaf apex obtuse or acute, base cuneate or obtuse or cordate or hastate. Leaf oblique part 0–4 mm long, obliqueness index 0–10 percent. Petioles 0.5–2 cm long, 15–35% length of lamina, prickles absent.

Upper leaf surface. Upper leaf surface green. Upper leaf surface prickles absent. Upper leaf surface stellate hairs distributed throughout, protostellae absent, hair density very sparse to sparse. Upper leaf surface stellae 0.4–0.7 mm apart, 0.2–0.4 mm across, stalks 0 mm long. Upper leaf surface stellae lateral rays 5–10, porrect. Upper leaf surface stellae central ray 0.7–1.5 times as long as laterals, not gland-tipped. Upper leaf surface simple hairs absent. Upper leaf surface Type 2 hairs absent.

Lower leaf surface. Lower leaf surface white, grey or yellowish. Lower leaf surface prickles absent. Lower leaf surface stellate hair density dense to very dense. Lower leaf surface stellae 0.05–0.1 mm apart, 0.4–0.5 mm diameter, stalks 0–0.1 mm long. Lower leaf surface stellae lateral rays 8–13, porrect. Lower leaf surface stellae central ray 0.5–1 times as long as laterals, not gland-tipped. Lower leaf surface simple hairs absent. Lower leaf surface Type 2 hairs absent.

Inflorescence. Inflorescence supra-axillary, cymose (pseudo-racemose). Inflorescence common peduncle absent or present, 0–10 mm long. Inflorescence rachis prickles absent. Inflorescence 6–20-flowered, with all flowers bisexual. Flowers 5-merous. Pedicels at anthesis 4–6 mm long, same thickness throughout, 0.5–0.7 mm thick at mid-point, prickles absent. Calyx tube at anthesis 1.5–2 mm long. Calyx lobes at anthesis deltate, 1–2.5 mm long. Calyx prickles at anthesis absent. Calyx stellae dense to very dense, white, 0.25–0.4 mm across, stalks 0–0.1 mm long, lateral rays 8–10. Calyx stellae central ray 0.7–1.5 times as long as laterals, not gland-tipped. Calyx simple hairs absent, Type 2 hairs absent. Corolla mauve or purple, 5–8 mm long, deeply lobed, inner surface glabrous. Anthers 3.5–4.5 mm long. Ovary glabrous. Functional style 5.5–7 mm long, protruding between anthers, glabrous.

Fruits. Fruiting calyx lobes less than half length of mature fruit or lobes more than half length of mature fruit, prickles absent. Mature fruits 1–11 per inflorescence, globular, 7–8 mm diameter, red. Mature fruits interior juicy, succulent. Pedicels at fruiting stage 8–12 mm long, 0.7–1 mm thick at mid-point. Seeds pale yellow, 3.5–3.8 mm long.

Distribution and habitat. Queensland, New South Wales. Qld: Gregory South, Gregory North, Burke. NSW: North Far Western Plains. Shrublands in arid zone.

Miscellaneous. Subg. Leptostemonum. Data source: specimens.


Solanum chenopodioides

Habit. Erect, annual or non-rhizomatous perennial shrub, 0.3–1.2 m high. Large stems prickles absent.

Branchlets. Branchlets ridged, white or grey. Branchlet prickles absent. Branchlet hairs Type 2 or simple. Branchlet stellae absent. Branchlet simple hairs antrorse, curved, not gland-tipped, 0.25–0.7 mm long. Branchlet Type 2 hairs sparse or dense.

Leaves. Leaves lanceolate or elliptical or ovate, entire or shallowly lobed throughout. Leaf lobes 0 on each side or 3–5 on each side, obtuse, lobing index 1–1.1. Leaves 1.2–6 cm long, 0.5–2.5 cm wide, 2.2–2.7 times longer than broad. Leaf base cuneate. Leaf oblique part 0–3 mm long. Petioles 0.5–1 cm long, winged, prickles absent.

Upper leaf surface. Upper leaf surface green or grey-green. Upper leaf surface prickles absent. Upper leaf surface stellate hairs absent, protostellae absent, hair density absent from surface. Upper leaf surface simple hairs antrorse, curved, moderate to dense, not gland-tipped. Upper leaf surface Type 2 hairs absent.

Lower leaf surface. Lower leaf surface greenish-white or white, grey. Lower leaf surface prickles absent. Lower leaf surface stellate hair density absent. Lower leaf surface simple hairs antrorse, curved, moderate to dense, not gland-tipped. Lower leaf surface Type 2 hairs absent.

Inflorescence. Inflorescence supra-axillary, umbellate. Inflorescence common peduncle 10–25 mm long. Inflorescence rachis prickles absent. Inflorescence 4–7-flowered, with all flowers bisexual. Flowers 5-merous. Pedicels at anthesis 2–4 mm long, same thickness throughout, prickles absent. Calyx tube at anthesis 1–1.5 mm long. Calyx lobes at anthesis elliptic or deltate, 0.8–1.5 mm long. Calyx prickles at anthesis absent. Calyx stellae absent. Calyx simple hairs present, Type 2 hairs absent. Corolla white, 3.5–7 mm long, deeply lobed, inner surface glabrous. Anthers 2.5–3.5 mm long. Functional style 5–6 mm long, protruding between anthers, with simple hairs.

Fruits. Fruiting calyx lobes less than half length of mature fruit, prickles absent. Mature fruits globular, 7–9.5 mm diameter, black or purple, dull. Seeds 1.4–1.8 mm long.

Distribution and habitat. Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria. Qld: Moreton, Darling Downs. NSW: North Coast, Central Coast, South Coast, Northern Tablelands, Central Tablelands. Shrubby eucalypt woodland, remote from rainforest.

Miscellaneous. Naturalised. Sect. Solanum. Common name: Velvety Nightshade. Data source: Fl of SEQ, Fl of NZ, specimens, Henderson 1974.


Cite this publication as: ‘Bean, A.R. 2012 onwards. Solanum species of eastern and northern Australia. Version: 29th June 2013. http://delta-intkey.com’.

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