Solanum species of eastern and northern Australia

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A. R. Bean

Character List

Habit

#1. <Habit, erect or prostrate>/

1. prostrate/

2. sprawling/

3. erect/

#2. <Form, vine, shrub etc.>/

1. annual/

2. herbaceous resprouter/

3. stoloniferous perennial shrub/

4. rhizomatous perennial shrub/

5. non-rhizomatous perennial shrub/

6. perennial vine/

An annual is a plant whose life cycle is completed in less that a year. All subsequent plants arise from seed.

A herbaceous resprouter is one where the above-ground portion of the plant dies each year, but the root or rhizome is persistent. It is leafy for only 3–6 months of the year.

Rhizomatous perennial plants can be recognised in the field by the occurrence of colonies of seemingly separate solanum plants growing in close proximity.

#3. <Height of plant, when fertile>/

m high/

Branchlets

#4. Large stems bark <whether corky>/

1. thin, nondescript/

2. corky on trunk/

3. furrowed, corky throughout/

A few species have conspicuously furrowed, corky bark on the larger stems. This feature is often visible on the largest branchlets of herbarium specimens.

#5. Large stems prickles <presence>/

1. absent/

2. present/

Adult stems = aerial framework of the plant i.e. trunk and branches, but excluding the terminal 20–30cm of branchlets.

#6. Branchlets <shape, naked eye>/

1. terete/

2. ridged/

‘Ridged’ stems are ideally assessed by the naked eye from fresh material. Obscure ridging on dried material is not considered ‘ridged’.

#7. Branchlets <colour>/

1. white/

2. grey/

3. mauve to purple/

4. yellow/

5. rusty/

6. brown/

7. green/

#8. Branchlet prickles <presence>/

1. absent/

2. present/

Branchlets implies the terminal 20–30cm of the stem, i.e. that part usually preserved on a herbarium sheet.

#9. Branchlet prickles <density>/

per decimetre/

This character applies only to adult plants. On young adult plants, the measurement should be made beyond (or distally from) the first inflorescence. 1 decimetre = 10 centimetres.

#10. Branchlet prickles <shape>/

1. straight, acicular/

2. straight, broad-based/

3. curved, broad-based/

Broad-based prickles are 1–7 times longer than they are wide; acicular prickles are 7–20 times longer than wide.

#11. Branchlet prickles <length>/

mm long/

#12. Branchlet prickles <length/width ratio>/

times longer than wide/

#13. Branchlet prickles <whether glabrous>/

1. glabrous/

2. with scattered Type 2 hairs on lower half/

3. with scattered stellate hairs on lower half/

4. with dense stellate hairs on lower part/

#14. Branchlet hairs <presence, type>/

1. branched <dendritic>/

2. Type 2/

3. simple/

4. stellate/

5. absent/

Measure this about 10–20 cm from growing point. Type 2 hairs are very short trichomes (<0.1 mm long) occurring widely in Solanaceae, normally with one stalk cell, and a transparent multicellular glandular head.

#15. Branchlet stellae <presence, density>/

1. absent/

2. sparse to moderate/

3. dense/

4. very dense/

Sparse to moderate - stellae not overlapping.

Dense - stellae overlapping but branchlet surface not obscured.

Very dense - stellae very closely packed, obscuring branchlet surface.

#16. Branchlet stellae <diameter>/

mm diameter/

#17. Branchlet stellae stalks <length>/

mm long/

#18. Branchlet stellae lateral rays <number>/

#19. Branchlet stellae lateral rays <orientation>/

1. porrect/

2. ascending/

3. multiradiate/

4. echinoid/

Porrect - lateral rays all +/- in one plane, usually at right angles to the central ray.

Ascending - lateral rays all at an angle of 30–60 degrees from the central ray.

Multiradiate - lateral rays projecting at various angles, some ascending, some descending, central ray not distinguishable.

Echinate - lateral rays very numerous, more densely clustered than ‘multiradiate’.

#20. Branchlet stellae central ray <presence>/

1. absent/

2. present/

#21. Branchlet stellae central ray <ratio>/

times as long as laterals/

#22. Branchlet stellae central ray <whether gland-tipped>/

1. not gland-tipped/

2. gland-tipped/

#23. Branchlet stellae <stalk rigidity>/

1. thready/

2. rigid/

#24. Branchlet simple hairs <presence, type>/

1. absent/

2. antrorse, curved/

3. erect, straight/

Simple hairs are uniseriate and multicellular, usually 0.5–5 mm long.

#25. Branchlet simple hairs <whether 'gland-tipped>/

1. not gland-tipped/

2. gland-tipped/

#26. Branchlet simple hairs <length>/

mm long/

#27. Branchlet Type 2 hairs <density>/

1. absent/

2. sparse/

3. dense/

Type 2 hairs are very short trichomes (<0.1 mm long) occurring widely in Solanaceae, normally with one stalk cell, and a transparent multicellular glandular head.

Leaves

#28. Leaves <shape in outline>/

1. linear/

2. narrow lanceolate/

3. lanceolate/

4. elliptical/

5. ovate/

6. triangular/

7. broadly ovate/

8. orbicular/

#29. Leaves <lobing/dissection>/

1. entire/

2. shallowly lobed throughout/

3. deeply lobed throughout/

4. pinnate (some or all lobes dissected to the midrib)/

5. with basal lobes only/

Measure the ratio about halfway along the leaf.

#30. Leaf lobes <number of lobes>/

on each side/

#31. Leaf lobes <apex>/

1. acute/

2. obtuse/

#32. Leaf lobing index/

Measure the ratio about halfway along the leaf.

#33. Leaves <length>/

cm long/

On oblique leaves, the lamina length is measured on the longer side

#34. Leaves <width>/

cm wide/

For deeply lobed leaves, measure the maximum width at right angles to the midrib.

For hastate leaves, measure the width halfway along the leaf.

#35. Leaves <length-width ratio>/

times longer than broad/

On oblique leaves, the lamina length is measured on the longer side.

For deeply lobed leaves, measure the maximum width at right angles to the midrib.

For hastate leaves, measure the width halfway along the leaf.

#36. Leaf domatia <presence>/

1. absent/

2. present/

#37. Leaf apex/

1. obtuse/

2. acute/

3. acuminate/

#38. Leaf base/

1. cuneate/

2. obtuse/

3. cordate/

4. hastate/

#39. Leaf oblique part <length>/

mm long/

#40. Leaf obliqueness index/

percent/

#41. Petioles <length>/

cm long/

#42. Petioles <percentage of lamina length>/

% length of lamina/

#43. Petioles <whether winged>/

1. not winged/

2. winged/

A winged petiole is one where a narrow strip of green lamina tissue extends along the length of the petiole.

#44. Petioles prickles <presence>/

1. absent/

2. present/

#45. Axillary leaves <pseudo-stipules, presence>/

1. absent/

2. present/

Small stipule-like leaves occurring in the leaf axils of some species

Upper leaf surface

#46. Upper leaf surface <colour>/

1. yellowish/

2. green/

3. grey-green/

4. grey/

#47. Upper leaf surface prickles <distribution>/

1. absent/

2. present on midvein only/

3. present on midvein and lateral veins/

#48. Upper leaf surface prickles <number>/

#49. Upper leaf surface prickles <shape>/

1. straight, acicular/

2. straight, broad-based/

Broad-based prickles are 1–7 times longer than they are wide; acicular prickles are 7–20 times longer than wide.

#50. Upper leaf surface prickles <length>/

mm long/

#51. Upper leaf surface stellate hairs <distribution, excluding midrib>/

1. absent/

2. confined to midrib/

3. distributed throughout/

#52. Upper leaf surface protostellae <presence>/

1. absent/

2. present/

‘protostellae’ are stellate hairs that have not reached their optimum development. These protostellae are smaller in size than ordinary stellae, have fewer lateral rays, and are interspersed with the ordinary stellae

#53. Upper leaf surface stellate hair density <see Notes>/

1. absent from surface/

2. very sparse/

3. sparse/

4. moderate density/

5. dense/

6. very dense/

Very sparse = stellae >2 diameters apart.

Sparse = 1–2 diameters apart.

1 diameter apart = just touching.

Moderate = 0.5–1 diameters apart.

Dense = 0.1–0.5 diameters apart.

Very dense = hairs in several layers, obscuring surface.

#54. Upper leaf surface stellae <spacing, centre to centre>/

mm apart/

#55. Upper leaf surface stellae <diameter>/

mm across/

#56. Upper leaf surface stellae stalks <length>/

mm long/

#57. Upper leaf surface stellae lateral rays <number>/

#58. Upper leaf surface stellae lateral rays <orientation>/

1. porrect/

2. ascending/

3. multiradiate/

#59. Upper leaf surface stellae central ray <ratio>/

times as long as laterals/

#60. Upper leaf surface stellae central ray <whether gland-tipped>/

1. not gland-tipped/

2. gland-tipped/

#61. Upper leaf surface simple hairs <presence, type>/

1. absent/

2. erect, straight/

3. antrorse, curved/

#62. Upper leaf surface simple hairs <density>/

1. very sparse or confined to major veins/

2. sparse/

3. moderate to dense/

#63. Upper leaf surface simple hairs <whether gland-tipped>/

1. not gland-tipped/

2. gland-tipped/

#64. Upper leaf surface simple hairs <length>/

mm long/

#65. Upper leaf surface Type 2 hairs <presence>/

1. absent/

2. present only in vein depressions/

3. present throughout/

Type 2 hairs are very short trichomes (<0.1 mm long) occurring widely in Solanaceae, normally with one stalk cell, and a transparent multicellular glandular head.

#66. Upper leaf surface Type 2 hairs <density>/

mm apart/

Lower leaf surface

#67. Lower leaf surface <colour>/

1. green/

2. greenish-white/

3. white, grey/

4. yellowish/

5. rusty/

6. purplish-white/

7. silvery/

#68. Lower leaf surface prickles <distribution>/

1. absent/

2. present on midvein only/

3. present on midvein and lateral veins/

#69. Lower leaf surface prickles <number>/

#70. Lower leaf surface prickles <shape>/

1. straight, acicular/

2. straight, broad-based/

3. curved, broad-based/

Broad-based prickles are 1–7 times longer than they are wide; acicular prickles are 7–20 times longer than wide.

#71. Lower leaf surface stellate hair density <see Notes>/

1. absent/

2. very sparse/

3. sparse/

4. moderate/

5. dense/

6. very dense/

Very sparse = stellae >2 diameters apart.

Sparse = 1–2 diameters apart.

1 diameter apart = just touching.

Moderate = 0.5–1 diameters apart.

Dense = 0.1–0.5 diameters apart.

Very dense = hairs in several layers, obscuring surface.

#72. Lower leaf surface stellae <spacing, centre to centre>/

mm apart/

#73. Lower leaf surface stellae <diameter>/

mm diameter/

#74. Lower leaf surface stellae stalks <length>/

mm long/

#75. Lower leaf surface stellae lateral rays <number>/

#76. Lower leaf surface stellae lateral rays <orientation>/

1. porrect/

2. ascending/

3. multiradiate/

#77. Lower leaf surface stellae central ray <ratio>/

times as long as laterals/

#78. Lower leaf surface stellae central ray <whether gland-tipped>/

1. not gland-tipped/

2. gland-tipped/

#79. Lower leaf surface simple hairs <presence, type>/

1. absent/

2. erect, straight/

3. antrorse, curved/

#80. Lower leaf surface simple hairs <density>/

1. very sparse or confined to major veins/

2. sparse/

3. moderate to dense/

#81. Lower leaf surface simple hairs <whether gland-tipped>/

1. not gland-tipped/

2. gland-tipped/

#82. Lower leaf surface simple hairs <length>/

mm long/

#83. Lower leaf surface branched/dendritic hairs <presence>/

1. absent/

2. present/

#84. Lower leaf surface Type 2 hairs <presence>/

1. absent/

2. present only on veins/

3. present throughout/

Type 2 hairs are very short trichomes (<0.1 mm long) occurring widely in Solanaceae, normally with one stalk cell, and a transparent multicellular glandular head.

#85. Lower leaf surface Type 2 hairs <density>/

mm apart/

Inflorescence

#86. Inflorescence <position>/

1. terminal/

2. leaf-opposed/

3. supra-axillary/

#87. Inflorescence <branching and type>/

1. solitary/

2. sessile (rachis very short or absent)/

3. cymose (pseudo-racemose)/

4. branched (paniculate to corymbose)/

5. umbellate/

6. almost umbellate but 1–2 fls/frt separate/

7. 2-branched, each branch terminated by an umbel/

solitary - one flower/fruit only

sessile (contracted) - 2 or more flowers/fruits arising from the stem, peduncle absent or rudimentary

cymose (pseudo-racemose) - an unbranched inflorescence with a rachis. The basal flower/fruit may be pedunculate or not.

umbellate - 2 to 10 flowers/fruits arising from the same point, peduncle well developed

almost umbellate but 1–2 fls/frt separate - as above but 1–2 flowers/fruits more proximal than the rest, peduncle well developed

2-branched, each branch terminated by an umbel - sometimes called a forked umbel, peduncle well developed

#88. Inflorescence common peduncle <presence>/

1. absent/

2. present/

#89. Inflorescence common peduncle <length at anthesis>/

mm long/

This is the distance along the rachis, from the basal flower to the subtending branchlet. The basal flower often aborts, so look for scars on the pedicel.

#90. Inflorescence rachis prickles <presence>/

1. absent/

2. present/

#91. Inflorescence <flower number, including scars>/

-flowered/

#92. Inflorescence with <sex ratio>/

1. all flowers unisexual (dioecious species)/

2. one bisexual flower, the rest male/

3. some bisexual and some male flowers/

4. all flowers bisexual/

An andromonoecious inflorescence comprises a mixture of bisexual flowers and functionally male flowers (where the style is very short and non-functional).

Strongly andromonoecious means a high proportion of male flowers.

Weakly andromonoecious means a low proportion of male flowers.

In dioecious species, inflorescences comprise either a single bisexual flower (on ‘female’ plants), or numerous male flowers (on ‘male’ plants).

#93. Flowers <4 or 5 merous>/

-merous/

Most Solanum spp have 5 calyx lobes, 5 corolla lobes and five anthers. Most 5-merous species can occasionally have a 4-merous or 6-merous flower, but these are not coded as 4-merous. A minority of species are consistently or frequently 4-merous.

#94. Flowers <dimorphism>/

1. all similar/

2. markedly dimorphic, with larger pricklier basal flower(s)/

Floral dimorphism is usually associated with the sex of the flowers. Bisexual flowers (borne basally) are often larger and have a more prickly calyx than male flowers (distal on the inflorescence).

#95. Pedicels at anthesis <length>/

mm long/

#96. Pedicels at anthesis <whether thickness variable>/

1. same thickness throughout/

2. markedly thicker distally/

#97. Pedicels at anthesis <thickness>/

mm thick at mid-point/

#98. Pedicels at anthesis prickles <presence>/

1. absent/

2. present/

#99. Pedicels with indument <whether uniform>/

1. prominent on distal end and glabrous on proximal end/

2. uniformly distributed/

#100. Calyx prickles on basal bisexual flowers <number>/

#101. Calyx prickles on basal bisexual flowers <length>/

mm long/

#102. Calyx prickles on distal male flowers <number>/

#103. Calyx prickles on distal male flowers <length>/

mm long/

#104. Calyx tube at anthesis <length>/

mm long/

#105. Calyx lobes at anthesis <shape>/

1. elliptic/

2. hemispherical/

3. deltate/

4. rostrate/

5. attenuate/

#106. Calyx lobes at anthesis <length>/

mm long/

#107. Calyx prickles at anthesis <presence>/

1. absent/

2. present/

Look closely for prickles; they may be as short as 1mm.

#108. Calyx prickles at anthesis <number>/

per flower/

#109. Calyx prickles at anthesis <length>/

mm long/

#110. Calyx stellae <density>/

1. absent/

2. very sparse to sparse/

3. moderate/

4. dense/

5. very dense/

Very sparse = stellae >2 diameters apart.

Sparse = 1–2 diameters apart.

1 diameter apart = just touching.

Moderate = 0.5–1 diameters apart.

Dense = 0.1–0.5 diameters apart.

Very dense = hairs in several layers, obscuring surface.

#111. Calyx stellae <colour>/

1. yellow/

2. white/

3. transparent/

4. purple/

5. brown or rusty/

#112. Calyx stellae <diameter>/

mm across/

#113. Calyx stellae stalks <length>/

mm long/

#114. Calyx stellae lateral rays <number>/

#115. Calyx stellae central ray <ratio>/

times as long as laterals/

#116. Calyx stellae central ray <glandularity>/

1. not gland-tipped/

2. gland-tipped/

#117. Calyx simple hairs <presence>/

1. absent/

2. present/

#118. Calyx Type 2 hairs <presence>/

1. absent/

2. present/

#119. Corolla <colour>/

1. yellow/

2. white/

3. mauve/

4. purple/

5. pink/

#120. Corolla <length>/

mm long/

the length includes the fused tubular section at the base; this measurement is often markedly different to a "radius" measurement across the top of an open flower

#121. Corolla <shape/lobing>/

1. rotate/

2. shallowly lobed/

3. deeply lobed/

4. campanulate/

#122. Corolla inner surface <whether hairy>/

1. glabrous/

2. sparsely stellate-hairy/

3. densely stellate-hairy/

4. with simple hairs/

Hairs usually near the tips of the lobes.

#123. Anthers <length>/

mm long/

#124. Filaments <length>/

mm long/

from the base of the anther to the point of attachment

#125. Filament attachment <basal or dorsal>/

1. dorsal/

2. basal/

#126. Ovary <hairiness>/

1. glabrous/

2. with stellate hairs only/

3. with Type 2 hairs only/

4. with stellate and Type 2 hairs/

5. with white glandular papillae/

Type 2 hairs are very short trichomes (<0.1 mm long) occurring in Solanaceae, normally with one stalk cell, and a transparent multicellular glandular head.

#127. Functional style <length>/

mm long/

Some Solanum species have short non-functional styles (male flowers) and longer functional styles (bisexual flowers). The functional styles may be easily recognised as they are longer than the anthers and protrude beyond the anthers.

#128. Functional style <position>/

1. protruding between anthers/

2. erect near base, then bent, displacing one anther/

3. strongly bent near base, not touching anthers/

#129. Functional style <hairiness>/

1. glabrous/

2. with stellate hairs only/

3. with Type 2 hairs only/

4. with stellate and Type 2 hairs/

5. with white glandular papillae/

6. with simple hairs/

#130. Functional style stellae <diameter>/

mm across/

#131. Functional style stellae lateral rays <number>/

#132. Functional style stellae central ray <ratio>/

times as long as laterals/

#133. Stigma <form>/

1. forked/

2. expanded, obtuse or lobed/

3. unexpanded/

Fruits

#134. Fruiting calyx <relative length or accresence>/

1. lobes less than half length of mature fruit/

2. lobes more than half length of mature fruit/

3. lobes exceeding mature fruit/

4. hypanthium accrescent, enclosing most or all of mature fruit/

#135. Fruiting calyx prickles <presence>/

1. absent/

2. present/

#136. Fruiting calyx prickles <length>/

mm long/

#137. Fruiting calyx lobes <curvature>/

1. not recurved/

2. strongly recurved/

#138. Mature fruits <number, excluding scars>/

per inflorescence/

#139. Mature fruits <shape when fresh>/

1. oblate/

2. globular/

3. ellipsoidal or ovoid/

#140. Mature fruits <diameter when fresh>/

mm diameter/

This is the diameter in the living state, not when pressed and squashed; however you can estimate the ‘intact’ diameter from a squashed fruit.

#141. Mature fruits <colour when fresh>/

1. brown/

2. red/

3. orange/

4. yellow/

5. yellowish-green/

6. green, often streaked/

7. black/

8. purple/

9. white/

To use this character, you must be confident that the fruits are mature. You can infer this by their ease of detachment from the plant, presence of fallen fruit around the plant, or the noticeable softening.

#142. Mature fruits <shininess>/

1. dull/

2. shiny/

#143. Mature fruits <indumentum>/

1. glabrous/

2. with a few scattered Type 2 hairs/

3. with a few scattered stellate hairs/

4. conspicuously stellate hairy/

#144. Mature fruits <number of locules>/

1. 1-locular (septum absent or incomplete)/

2. 2-locular/

3. 3-locular/

4. 4-locular/

#145. Mature fruits placenta <type, in cross-section>/

1. not apparent/

2. sessile, linear/

3. sessile, semi-circular/

4. sessile, elliptical/

5. stalked, circular to elliptical/

6. stalked, anvil-shaped/

#146. Mature fruits interior <succulence>/

1. juicy, succulent/

2. moist but not juicy/

3. dry/

#147. Mature fruits pericarp <thickness, when fresh>/

mm thick/

#148. Fruit attachment/

1. firmly attached, leaving beaked appendage on calyx/

2. shed readily, leaving shallow circular scar/

#149. Pedicels at fruiting stage <length>/

mm long/

#150. Pedicels at fruiting stage <thickness>/

mm thick at mid-point/

#151. Seeds <colour>/

1. white/

2. pale yellow/

3. brown/

4. black/

#152. Seeds <maximum dimension>/

mm long/

#153. Stone-cell granules <presence>/

1. absent/

2. present/

Stone-like sclerotic granules may be present in the fruits of some species. They typically occur just below the epidermis, and number between 2 and 8, though in a few species, they outnumber the seeds. These granules are usually spherical and can reach up to 1.5 mm diameter.

Distribution and habitat

#154. <Distribution by state:>/

1. Queensland/

2. New South Wales/

3. Victoria/

4. Tasmania/

5. Northern Territory <coverage incomplete>/

6. Western Australia <coverage incomplete>/

#155. Qld: <botanical district>/

1. Moreton <QMO>/

2. Darling Downs <QDD>/

3. Wide Bay <QWB>/

4. Burnett <QBN>/

5. Maranoa <QMA>/

6. Cook <QCO>/

7. Leichhardt <QLE>/

8. Warrego <QWA>/

9. Port Curtis <QPC>/

10. Mitchell <QMI>/

11. Gregory South <QGS>/

12. Gregory North <QGN>/

13. Kennedy South <QKS>/

14. Kennedy North <QKN>/

15. Burke <QBU>/

Map from http://www.anbg.gov.au/cpbr/anhsir/anhsir-manual/botanical-districts.html.

#156. NSW: <botanical district>/

1. North Coast <NNC>/

2. Central Coast <NCC>/

3. South Coast <NSC+CJB>/

4. Northern Tablelands <NNT>/

5. Central Tablelands <NCT>/

6. Southern Tablelands <NST+CAN>/

7. North-west Slopes <NNS>/

8. Central-west Slopes <NCS>/

9. South-west Slopes <NSS>/

10. North Western Plains <NNP>/

11. South Western Plains <NSP>/

12. North Far Western Plains <NNF>/

13. South Far Western Plains <NSF>/

Map from http://www.anbg.gov.au/cpbr/anhsir/anhsir-manual/botanical-districts.html.

#157. <Habitat type, excluding man-made:>/

1. evergreen notophyll rainforest (no eucalypts)/

2. wet eucalypt forest with rainforest understorey, or rainforest margins/

3. semi-evergreen vine thicket or brigalow/belah/

4. semi-deciduous vine forest on sand, laterite or granite/

5. shrubby eucalypt woodland, remote from rainforest/

6. lancewood communities (dominated by Acacia catenulata, shirleyi, burrowii, etc.)/

7. red earths in mulga (Acacia aneura) dominated communities/

8. grassland or open woodland on cracking clays/

9. shrublands in arid zone/

10. saline littoral zone/

#158. <Native or naturalised in Australia:>/

1. naturalised/

2. native /

Both states are recorded for plants that are native to some states and naturalized in others.

#159. <Classification:>/

1. sect. Geminata/

2. subg. Archaesolanum/

3. subg. Potatoe/

4. sect. Solanum/

5. subg. Brevantherum/

6. subg. Leptostemonum/

7. subg. Bassovia/

Miscellaneous

#160. Common name:/

#161. Data source:/

#162. <Illustrations:>/


Cite this publication as: ‘Bean, A.R. 2012 onwards. Solanum species of eastern and northern Australia. Version: 29th June 2013. http://delta-intkey.com’.

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