Solanum species of eastern and northern Australia


A. R. Bean

Solanum aviculare

Habit. Erect, non-rhizomatous perennial shrub, 1.5–4 m high. Large stems prickles absent.

Branchlets. Branchlets ridged, brown or green. Branchlet prickles absent. Branchlet hairs absent. Branchlet stellae absent.

Leaves. Leaves narrow lanceolate or lanceolate or elliptical or ovate or broadly ovate, entire or shallowly lobed throughout or deeply lobed throughout. Leaf lobes 0 on each side or 2–4 on each side, acute, lobing index 1–20. Leaves 15–30 cm long, 2–15 cm wide, 1.5–7 times longer than broad. Leaf apex acute, base cuneate. Petioles 1–3 cm long, not winged, prickles absent.

Upper leaf surface. Upper leaf surface green. Upper leaf surface prickles absent. Upper leaf surface stellate hairs absent, protostellae absent, hair density absent from surface. Upper leaf surface simple hairs absent. Upper leaf surface Type 2 hairs absent.

Lower leaf surface. Lower leaf surface green. Lower leaf surface prickles absent. Lower leaf surface stellate hair density absent. Lower leaf surface simple hairs absent. Lower leaf surface Type 2 hairs absent.

Inflorescence. Inflorescence leaf-opposed, cymose (pseudo-racemose) or branched (paniculate to corymbose). Inflorescence common peduncle absent. Inflorescence rachis prickles absent. Inflorescence 5–20-flowered, with all flowers bisexual. Flowers 5-merous. Pedicels at anthesis 10–20 mm long, prickles absent. Calyx tube at anthesis 2–4 mm long. Calyx lobes at anthesis hemispherical or deltate, 1.5–3 mm long. Calyx prickles at anthesis absent. Calyx stellae absent. Calyx simple hairs absent, Type 2 hairs absent. Corolla purple, 12–20 mm long, rotate, inner surface glabrous. Anthers 3.5–4.5 mm long. Ovary glabrous. Functional style 7–8 mm long, protruding between anthers, glabrous.

Fruits. Fruiting calyx lobes less than half length of mature fruit, prickles absent. Mature fruits 5–20 per inflorescence, ellipsoidal or ovoid, 10–15 mm diameter, red or orange. Pedicels at fruiting stage 20–35 mm long. Seeds black, 1.5–2 mm long, stone-cell granules present.

Distribution and habitat. Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, Western Australia. Qld: Moreton, Darling Downs, Wide Bay, Burnett, Maranoa, Cook, Leichhardt, Kennedy South, Kennedy North. NSW: North Coast, Central Coast, South Coast, Northern Tablelands, Central Tablelands, Southern Tablelands, North-west Slopes, Central-west Slopes, South-west Slopes, North Western Plains, South Western Plains. Evergreen notophyll rainforest (no eucalypts), wet eucalypt forest with rainforest understorey, or rainforest margins, semi-evergreen vine thicket or brigalow/belah.

Miscellaneous. Subg. Archaesolanum. Common name: Kangaroo Apple. Data source: Symon 1994.

Illustrations. • flowers. • flowers. • full sized fruits, not yet coloured. • mature fruits. • leaves. • large plant.

Cite this publication as: ‘Bean, A.R. 2012 onwards. Solanum species of eastern and northern Australia. Version: 29th June 2013.’.