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DELTA sample data

M. J. Dallwitz and L. Watson

Key 5 - confirmatory characters

Characters: 89 in data, 75 included, 28 in key.
Items: 14 in data, 14 included, 17 in key.
Parameters: Rbase = 1.40 Abase = 2.00 Reuse = 1.01 Varywt = 0.80
Characters included: 2–24 26–77
Character reliabilities: 2–5,7.0 7–10,7.0 11–13,8.0 14–26,7.0 27,8.0 28–38,7.0 40–43,7.0 44,8.0 45–47,7.0 48,8.0 49–63,7.0 64,6.0 65,7.0 66,8.0 67,7.0 68,2.0 69,1.0 70,2.0 71–76,1.0 77,8.0 78–85,1.0 86,6.0

1(0).
  • Hilum short ... 2
  • Hilum long-linear... 11

2(1).
  • Female-fertile florets 1 ... 3
  • Female-fertile florets 2 ... Poa
  • Female-fertile florets 3 or more... 9

3(2).
  • Spikelets disarticulating above the glumes ... 4
  • Spikelets disarticulating between the glumes ... Cynodon
  • Spikelets falling with the glumes... 6
  • Spikelets not disarticulating... 8

4(3).
  • Inflorescence of spicate main branches; ligule a fringed membrane to a fringe of hairs; spikelets secund; glumes shorter than the adjacent lemmas ... 5
  • Inflorescence paniculate; ligule an unfringed membrane; spikelets not secund; glumes long relative to the adjacent lemmas ... Agrostis

5(4).
  • Hairy callus present; lemmas awned; biochemical type PCK ... Chloris
  • Hairy callus absent; lemmas awnless; biochemical type NAD–ME ... Cynodon

6(3).
  • Palea relatively long; spikelet-bearing axes persistent; hairy callus absent; glumes very unequal ... 7
  • Palea very reduced; spikelet-bearing axes disarticulating; hairy callus present; glumes more or less equal ... Andropogon

7(6).
  • Inflorescence of spicate main branches; spikelets secund ... Echinochloa
  • Inflorescence paniculate; spikelets not secund ... Panicum

8(3).
  • Plants monoecious with all the fertile spikelets unisexual; fruiting inflorescence a massive, spatheate cob, the fruits in many rows; glumes more or less equal; stamens 0 ... Zea
  • Plants bisexual, with bisexual spikelets; fruiting inflorescence not as in maize; glumes very unequal; stamens 3 ... Panicum

9(2).
  • Inflorescence of spicate main branches; spikelets secund; fruit sculptured; pericarp free ... Eleusine
  • Inflorescence paniculate; spikelets not secund; fruit smooth; pericarp fused... 10

10(9).
  • Glumes carinate; lemmas carinate; lodicules membranous; stigmas white ... Poa
  • Glumes non-carinate; lemmas non-carinate; lodicules fleshy; stigmas brown ... Phragmites

11(1).
  • Stamens 3; mesophyll without arm cells; midrib with one bundle only ... 12
  • Stamens 6; mesophyll with arm cells; midrib having complex vascularization... 13

12(11).
  • Ligule an unfringed membrane; hairy callus absent; glumes very unequal; glumes shorter than the adjacent lemmas ... Festuca
  • Ligule a fringed membrane to a fringe of hairs; hairy callus present; glumes more or less equal; glumes long relative to the adjacent lemmas ... Anisopogon

13(11).
  • Inflorescence a complex of ‘partial inflorescences’ and intervening foliar organs; rachilla prolonged beyond the uppermost female-fertile floret; lemmas blunt; lodicules ciliate ... Bambusa
  • Inflorescence not comprising ‘partial inflorescences’ and foliar organs; rachilla terminated by a female-fertile floret; lemmas pointed; lodicules glabrous ... Oryza


We advise against extracting comparative information from the descriptions. This is much more easily achieved using the DELTA data files orthe interactive key, which allows access to the character list, illustrations, full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting or lacking specified attributes, and distributions of character states within any set of taxa. See also Guidelines for using data taken from Web publications.


Cite this publication as: ‘Watson, L., and Dallwitz, M.J. 1998 onwards. DELTA sample data: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval. Version: 19th October 2016. delta-intkey.com’.

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