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DELTA sample data

M. J. Dallwitz and L. Watson

Echinochloa P. Beauv.

Including Ornithospermum Dumoulin, Tema Adans.

Habit, vegetative morphology. Annual, or perennial. Culms 40–360 cm high; herbaceous; branched above, or unbranched above. Culm nodes glabrous. Ligule present, or absent; when present, a fringe of hairs.

Inflorescence. Plants bisexual, with bisexual spikelets. Inflorescence of spicate main branches (the spikelets often hispid); not comprising ‘partial inflorescences’ and foliar organs. Spikelet-bearing axes persistent. Spikelets paired, or clustered in little secondary racemelets; secund.

Female-fertile spikelets, florets, fruit. Spikelets 2.3–7 mm long; compressed dorsiventrally; falling with the glumes. Rachilla terminated by a female-fertile floret. Hairy callus absent. Glumes two; very unequal; (the upper) shorter than the adjacent lemmas to long relative to the adjacent lemmas; awned, or awnless. Upper glume 5 nerved, or 7 nerved. Spikelets with incomplete florets. The incomplete florets proximal to the female-fertile florets. The proximal incomplete florets 1; male (rarely), or sterile. The proximal lemmas awned, or awnless. Female-fertile florets 1. Lemmas entire; awnless (obtuse to apiculate); non-carinate; with a clear germination flap; 5 nerved. Palea present (the tip reflexed); relatively long. Lodicules present; fleshy; glabrous. Stamens 3. Ovary glabrous. Stigmas 2; red pigmented. Fruit small. Hilum short.

Photosynthetic pathway, leaf blade anatomy. C4; biochemical type NADP–ME (3 species); XyMS–. Midrib conspicuous; having a conventional arc of bundles; with colourless tissue adaxially. Many of the smallest vascular bundles unaccompanied by sclerenchyma.

Taxonomy, distribution. Panicoideae; Panicodae; Paniceae. 30–40 species. Holarctic, Paleotropical, Neotropical, and Australian.

Anatomical references. Metcalfe 1960; this project.


We advise against extracting comparative information from the descriptions. This is much more easily achieved using the DELTA data files or the interactive key, which allows access to the character list, illustrations, full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting or lacking specified attributes, and distributions of character states within any set of taxa. See also Guidelines for using data taken from Web publications.


Cite this publication as: ‘Watson, L., and Dallwitz, M.J. 1998 onwards. DELTA sample data: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval. Version: 19th October 2016. delta-intkey.com’.

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