The grass genera of the world
Habit, vegetative morphology. Perennial. The flowering culms leafless, or leafy. Culms 400–600 cm high (or up to 10 m long); woody and persistent; to 0.4 cm in diameter, or 5 cm in diameter; cylindrical (?); scandent, or not scandent; branched above. Primary branches/mid-culm node 3–25 (few to many). Culm sheaths deciduous in their entirety. Culm internodes hollow. Rhizomes pachymorph. Plants unarmed. Leaves not basally aggregated; auriculate; with auricular setae. Leaf blades lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate; broad; 10–60 mm wide (and 100–230 mm long); pseudopetiolate; disarticulating from the sheaths; rolled in bud.
Reproductive organization. Plants bisexual, with bisexual spikelets; with hermaphrodite florets.
Inflorescence. Inflorescence indeterminate; with pseudospikelets; a compound panicle; spatheate; a complex of partial inflorescences and intervening foliar organs. Spikelet-bearing axes paniculate. Spikelets not secund; sessile to subsessile.
Female-fertile spikelets. Spikelets 6–8 mm long (S. subtilis), or 15 mm long; compressed laterally; disarticulating above the glumes; disarticulating between the florets. Rachilla prolonged beyond the uppermost female-fertile floret; the rachilla extension with incomplete florets.
Glumes two to several (usually 3); very unequal; shorter than the spikelets; shorter than the adjacent lemmas; pointed to not pointed; awnless (but mucronate); similar. Lower glume of S. hirsuta 7 nerved. Upper glume of S. hirsuta 9 nerved. Spikelets with incomplete florets. The incomplete florets distal to the female-fertile florets. The distal incomplete florets merely underdeveloped. Spikelets seemingly with proximal incomplete florets.
Female-fertile florets 3–5. Lemmas similar in texture to the glumes; not becoming indurated; entire; pointed; awnless, or mucronate; hairless; glabrous (or glabrescent); without a germination flap; 5–9 nerved. Palea present; relatively long (exceeding the lemma); tightly clasped by the lemma; entire; awnless, without apical setae; several nerved (in S. subtilis - two between the keels, two outside on each side); 2-keeled. Palea keels winged; hairy (to ciliolate). Lodicules not mentioned in the available descriptions. Stamens 6. Anthers 2.3–2.5 mm long; not penicillate; with the connective apically prolonged. Ovary hairy; with a conspicuous apical appendage. The appendage broadly conical, fleshy. Styles fused (into one). Stigmas 3.
Fruit, embryo and seedling. Fruit large (to about 6 mm diameter, where known); subglobose; not noticeably compressed. Hilum short. Pericarp fleshy. Embryo large. Seed non-endospermic.
Taxonomy. Bambusoideae; Bambusodae; Bambuseae.
Distribution, ecology, phytogeography. 3 species; Malesia. Mesophytic.
Paleotropical. Indomalesian. Malesian.
References, etc. Morphological/taxonomic: Dransfield, S. (1989). Kew Bull. 44, 425–434.
Special comments. Anatomical data wanting.
This description is offered for casual browsing only. We strongly advise against extracting comparative information from it. This is much more easily achieved using the interactive key, which allows access to the character list, illustrations, full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting specified attributes, summaries of attributes within groups of taxa, geographical distribution, classification, and species sampled for anatomy.
Cite this publication as: ‘Watson, L., and Dallwitz, M.J. 1992 onwards. The grass genera of the world: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval; including synonyms, morphology, anatomy, physiology, phytochemistry, cytology, classification, pathogens, world and local distribution, and references. Version: 18th December 2012. http://delta-intkey.com’.